Pompeii

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Pompeii (/pɒmˈpeɪ(i)/, Latin: [pɔmˈpei̯iː]) was an ancient city located in what is now the comune of Pompei near Naples in the Campania region of Italy. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area was buried under 4 to 6 meters (13 to 20 feet) of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE.

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Overview

Largely preserved under the ash, the excavated city offered a unique snapshot of Roman life, frozen at the moment it was buried, and an extraordinarily detailed insight into the everyday life of its inhabitants, although much of the evidence was lost in the early excavations.

Religious Buildings

circa 10 CE

Temple of Genius Augusti
The Temple of the Genius Augusti was built upon the requests of Mamia, mentioned in an inscription as priestess of Cerere and of the Genius of Augustus. The architecture adopted the same design elements as the adjacent Portico of Concordia Augusta, as indicated by the marble decoration of the façade. The temple included a small courtyard, an altar and a small temple with four columns on a high basis, accessible from both sides. The beautiful marble decoration with floral motives filled with rich fauna, today seen at the entrance of the Portico of the Concordia of Eumachia, was likely to belong to the entrance of the temple.

circa 10 BCE

Sanctuary of Lari Pubblici
This sanctuary, together with the other temples for the imperial cult, such as the Temple of the Genius Augusti and the Portico of Concordia Augusta, was built in an area formerly taken up by shops. The large building, completely open on the Forum, was fitted with a central altar, where sacrifices could be offered for the emperor as well as for citizens of Lari. There are two large exedras on the two sides of the central apse and several niches intended to house the statues of the imperial family. Only a few fragments of the rich marble covering are preserved, which was destroyed shortly after the eruption 79 CE. The Sanctuary was built prior to the earthquake of 62 CE but after the rule of Augustus (first decades of the 1st century CE).

circa 15 BCE

Temple of Isis
The Temple of Isis is a Roman temple dedicated to the Egyptian goddess Isis. This small and almost intact temple was one of the first discoveries during the excavation of Pompeii in 1764 CE. Its role as a Hellenized Egyptian temple in a Roman colony was fully confirmed with an inscription detailed by Francisco la Vega on July 20, 1765 CE. The preserved Pompeian temple is actually the second structure; the original building built during the reign of Augustus was damaged in an earlier earthquake, in 62 CE. At the time of the 79 CE eruption of Vesuvius, the Iseum was the only temple to have been completely re-built.

circa 80 BCE

Temple of Venus
The Temple of Venus Pompeiana lies immediately to the right on entering the city by way of the Marina Gate. The goddess Venus Pompeiana was the patron goddess of Lucius Cornelius Sulla as well as of the city of Pompeii. Prior to the founding of the Roman colony the site had been occupied by houses but these were cleared away in the early years of the colony to make way for the temple complex. In less than 250 years the temple was twice built and twice destroyed; a third building was in the course of construction at the time of the eruption.

circa 120 BCE

Temple of Apollo
The Temple of Apollo is a Roman temple built in 120 BCE and dedicated to the Greek and Roman god Apollo. Located in the forum (market place) and facing the northern side of the town, it is the town's most important religious building and has ancient origins. The sanctuary's present appearance dates from its 2nd-century BCE rebuild, and a further reconstruction to repair damage from the 62 CE earthquake, repairs which were left incomplete at the time of the eruption.

circa 150 BCE

Temple of Jupiter
The Temple of Jupiter, Capitolium, or Temple of the Capitoline Triad, was a temple in Roman Pompeii, at the north end of its forum. Initially dedicated to Jupiter alone, it was built in the mid-2nd century BCE at the same time as the temple of Apollo was being renovated - this was the area at which Roman influence over Pompeii increased and so Roman Jupiter superseded the Greek Apollo as the town's highest god. The temple structure was built in 150 BC to dominate the forum, and it became Pompeii's main temple after the Roman conquest.

Residential Buildings

circa 50 BCE

House of Venus in the Shell
The house was built in the 1st century BCE and underwent a number of significant changes in its internal layout. Just like in the House of the Vettii, the tablinum is sacrificed for the garden with peristylium which becomes the focal point of the house around which there are various frescoed rooms, including the enormous oecus second bigger after the House of Menander. The back wall of the peristylium is decorated with a great and spectacular fresco of Venus, which gives the house its name. On the lower part, a luxurious garden is depicted over a barrier with exotic plants and animals.

circa 50 BCE

House of the Citharist
The house reached the current dimensions in the 1st century BCE and its name derives from the discovery of a bronze statue of Apollo playing the lyre. He was a member of the powerful Popidii family, as suggested by the graffiti and electoral inscriptions in the house.

The house, one of the largest in the city covering an area of 2700 square meters, takes up almost an entire block and reached such dimensions thanks to the progressive incorporation of various properties. This complex construction led to the development of an irregular plan, with two atriums and three peristylia, which form the most rich and lavish dwelling. The central peristylium has a swimming pool around which there were bronze sculptures of a wild boar attacked by two dogs, a lion, a deer and a snake all with fountain jets that created spectacular water features, according to the popular models in the richer Vesuvian villas.

circa 50 BCE

House of the Wounded Bear
The house, which dates back to the middle of the first century CE, owes its name to the beautiful mosaic with a wounded bear placed at the entrance, which is flanked by the inscription of welcome "HAVE" with which the owner welcomed his guests. The house offers some of the finest examples of painting from the mid-1st century CE, as seen in the triclinium with the little squares depicting Danae with the little Perseus and the myth of Narcissus. At the bottom of the small courtyard, in the middle of a large fresco depicting a garden with a wild boar and a wolf on the sides of a tree, there is a colorful mosaic fountain showing Venus lying inside a shell and below Neptune , the god of the sea, in the middle of a seabed full of fishes of all kinds.

circa 150 BCE

House of the Faun
The House of the Faun (Casa del Fauno), built during the 2nd century BCE, was one of the largest and most impressive private residences in Pompeii, and housed many great pieces of art. It is one of the most luxurious aristocratic houses from the Roman republic, and reflects this period better than most archaeological evidence found even in Rome itself. The House of the Faun was named for the bronze statue of the dancing faun located, originally, on the lip of the impluvium, a basin for catching rainwater; it has been moved to the centre of the impluvium.

circa 150 BCE

House of the Vettii
The House of the Vettii is a domus located in Pompeii. The house is named for its owners, two successful freedmen: Aulus Vettius Conviva, an Augustalis, and Aulus Vettius Restitutus. The house is one of the largest domus in Pompeii, spanning the entire southern section of block 15. The plan is fashioned in a typical Roman domus with the exception of a tablinum, which is not included. There are twelve mythological scenes across four cubiculum and one triclinium.

circa 150 BCE

House of the Silver Wedding
The house was excavated in 1893 CE and was named after the silver wedding anniversary of Umberto and Margherita of Savoy which took place in that year. Built sometime around 300 BCE and renovated in the early 1st century CE, it was the domus of a wealthy resident. Its architecture is classical and it bears fine decoration such as the atrium which has four tall Corinthian columns supporting the roof, and an elegantly ornamented exedra.

circa 150 BCE

House of Centenary
The House of the Centenary (Casa del Centenario, also known as the House of the Centenarian) was the house of a wealthy resident of Pompeii. The house was discovered in 1879, and was given its modern name to mark the 18th centenary of the disaster. Built in the mid-2nd century BCE, it is among the largest houses in the city, with private baths, a nymphaeum, a fish pond (piscina), and two atria. The Centenary underwent a remodeling around 15 CE, at which time the bath complex and swimming pool were added. In the last years before the eruption, several rooms had been extensively redecorated with a number of paintings.

circa 150 BCE

House of Julius Polybius
The house dates to the 2nd century BCE, and features a façade painted in the First Style, with high doors decorated with denticulated frames. In line with one of these, a false door was painted to the left of the tablinum, where several amphorae and heaps of lime were found - all evidence of the work which was in progress at the time of the eruption. It was an ostentatious domus, with a layout which was unusual compared to the other houses of Pompeii.

circa 150 BCE

House of Julia Felix
The House of Julia Felix, also referred to as the praedia (Latin for an estate, or land) of Julia Felix, is a large Roman property on the Via dell'Abbondanza. It was originally the residence of Julia Felix, who converted portions of it to apartments available for rent and other parts for public use after the major earthquake in 62 CE, a precursor to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 CE that destroyed Pompeii.

circa 150 BCE

House of Marco Lucrezio Frontone
Built during the Roman times, it is one of the most refined houses in Pompeii. The house of Marco Lucretius Frontone was built in the (probably mid) 2nd century BCE, but it was during the Augustan period, between the end of the 1st century BCE and the beginning of the 1st century, that it was enlarged and decorated. It was probably inhabited by one of the most powerful families of Pompeii, belonging to Marco Lucretius Frontone, according to some a relative of Tito Lucretius Caro. The house was damaged in the 62 CE earthquake, in particular the garden area, so much so that an almost total restoration had to be carried out and the works were not yet finished when the Vesuvius erupted again in 79 CE.

circa 150 BCE

House of Apollo
The House of Apollo lies on Via di Mercurio. The house derives its name from the frescoes of the myth of Apollo found in a cubiculum at the rear of the garden. The house was perhaps owned by M. Herenulli Communis, whose name was found on a ring uncovered in 1830 CE. The current layout dates back to the last period of life of the city, when the dwelling took up the area closest to the walls for the large garden to be set on two levels. This is without doubt the most important part of the house: a summer triclinium overlooks the lower garden adorned with a spectacular marble fountain with a ladder for a small waterfall.

circa 150 BCE

House of the Orchard
The House of the Orchard, also known as the House of the Garden, stands on the south side of the Via dell'Abbondanza and is known by some other names as well, including House Euplia and House of the Flower Cubicles. Although the house has its own small garden, the name of this mansion comes from the beautiful frescoes, depicting the garden on the walls of a cubicle-bedroom. The House of the Orchard, follows the standard Roman floor-plan, where the guest garden or atrium is an integral part of the house.

circa 150 BCE

House of Menander
The House of Menander (Casa del Menandro) is one of the richest and most magnificent houses in ancient Pompeii in terms of architecture. The estate is referred to as “The House of Menander” because there is a well-preserved fresco of the ancient Greek Dramatist Menander in a small room off the peristyle. Some speculate the painting is not actually of Menander but rather of the owner of the house or another person reading works by Menander. The house included other frescoes, including one depicting the death of Laocoön.

circa 150 BCE

House of the Surgeon
The House of the surgeon (Casa del Chirurgo) is the oldest and one of the most famous houses in Pompeii, which is located in the Italian region of Campania. It is named after ancient surgical instruments that were found there. It was uncovered in 1770 CE by Frances La Vega, (Spain). The house today still stands partially.

circa 150 BCE

House of Sallust
The House of Sallust (Casa di Sallustio), also known in earlier excavation reports as the House of Actaeon, is a domus or elite residence in the ancient Roman city of Pompeii. The oldest parts of the house have been dated to the 4th century BCE, but the main expansions were built in the 2nd century BCE during the Roman period. The long history of this structure provides important evidence about the development of elite residences in Pompeii.

circa 150 BCE

House of the Cornelii
The House of Cornelius Rufus, also known as the Domus Cornelia, is situated on the Via dell'Abbondanza across from the Stabian Baths. The house was first excavated in 1855 CE and again in 1861 and 1893. The property belonged to the gens Cornelia dating back to the time of Sulla. The Cornelii house is a typical villa rustica where Cornelius, Aurelia, Marcus, Cornelia, and Sextus live, along with Davus and all of the unruly slaves. The marble portrait bust of the owner Caius Cornelius Rufus, now at the Antiquarium of Pompeii, was originally placed at the doors of the atrium.

circa 150 BCE

House of Loreius Tiburtinus (Octavius Quartio)
The House of Loreius Tiburtinus (more correctly the House of Octavius Quartione after its true owner) is renowned for its meticulous and well-preserved artwork as well as its large gardens. The name of this house was wrongly derived from electoral advertisements of sorts etched in the outer façade, some saying "Vote for Loreius" and others "Vote for Tiburtinus." In fact, the last known owner of the house was a man named Octavius Quartio, whose bronze seal was found inside the house during excavations between the years 1916 and 1921.

circa 150 BCE

House of the Tragic Poet
The House of the Tragic Poet (also called The Homeric House or The Iliadic House) is a Roman house in Pompeii, Italy dating to the 2nd century BCE. The house is famous for its elaborate mosaic floors and frescoes depicting scenes from Greek mythology. Although the size of the house itself is in no way remarkable, its interior decorations are not only numerous but of the highest quality among other frescoes and mosaics from ancient Pompeii.

circa 150 BCE

House of Pansa
The house, which takes up the entire block, is a typical example of a Roman aristocratic home where the rooms are symmetrically and inter-axially located around the atrium and the peristylium. At the centre of the severe façade made of tuff opens the monumental entrance framed with capitals typical of the mid-second century BCE, the time when the house was constructed. It is remarkable to note an inscription painted in red and now protected with glass, one of seven in the Oscan language found in the city, which provided precise instructions to the troops, directing them towards certain places of defense if the enemy were to attack.

circa 150 BCE

House of the Gilded Cupids
The house, one of the most elegant of the Imperial era, is set around the spectacular peristylium with a rare rhodium type of garden, with higher columns on one side surmounted by a fronton, which conveyed a sacred aura to the overlooking rooms. Among these, particular attention should be given to the large hall, characterised by high quality mythological paintings and having a mosaic floor with a central rosette according to the fashion of the Augustan era. The religiousness of the peristylium is also emphasised by the presence of two places of worship: the aedicula of the lararium for traditional domestic worship and a particular chapel, dedicated to the worship of Egyptian gods.

circa 150 BCE

House of Cryptoporticus
It features a large underground passageway (cryptoporticus) and a small bath complex, both of which are rare features in Pompeian houses. They are decorated with recently restored exquisite Second Style Roman wall paintings that have distinctive designs. The construction of the house, with its elegant wall decoration, was part of a complicated series of events, often separated or joined with the adjacent House of the Lararium of Achilles for more than three centuries following the alternation of the owners, by doors and passages being closed.

circa 150 BCE

House of Championnet
The House of Championnet is one of the most sumptuous homes of Pompeii, which covers at least four levels sloping scenically towards the sea. The house consists of a rich atrium with four columns and with multi-coloured mosaic floors and geometric decorations. A thermal system was installed in the rooms situated on the lower floors, already active in the late republican era (2nd-1st century BCE). The rich wall decorations were reproduced in many designs from the late 18th century and the early 19th century.

circa 150 BCE

House of the Geometric Mosaics
It is one of the largest houses in the entire city with over 60 rooms occupying an area of 3000 square metres. It scenically extends on two levels with a series of terraces, exploiting the natural slope of the land, offering guests who entered the panorama of the valley of the Sarno. It is richly decorated with black and white floor mosaics in labyrinth and checkerboard patterns. The house derives from the union of two pre-existing atrium houses and shows the typical layout of a Roman house: a large atrium followed by the tablinum, which provided access to the portico and the large peristylium. The construction of the peristylium led to further expansion of the dimensions of the house, which reached the Forum area. The structure that can be seen today derives from the restoration works after the earthquake in 62 CE, when the façade was rebuilt.

circa 150 BCE

House of the Lovers
It is considered one of the jewels of Pompeii due to its unique second floor and well-preserved decorations, including what Agenzia Nazionale Stampa Associata (ANSA) describes as frescoes and mosaics of “mollusks and fish in idyllic landscapes.” First unearthed in 1933, the building derives its name from an inscription found near an image of a duck. Written in Latin, it reads, “Like bees, lovers lead a life as sweet as honey.”

circa 150 BCE

House of the Europa Ship
The modern name of the house derives from the presence of graffiti etched on the north wall of the peristylium, of a large cargo ship called "Europa" flanked by smaller vessels. Besides the imitation masonry in coloured stucco, the semi-columns at the top of the walls are remarkable, a type of decoration derived directly from Greek models of the third and second centuries BCE, very rare in Pompeii.

circa 175 BCE

House of the Labyrinth
The House of the Labyrinth lies at the rear of the House of the Faun on the Vico del Mercurio. The house, first excavated in 1834 CE, dates from the Samnite period and features two atria, each with their own separate entrance off the north side of the Vicolo del Mercurio as shown on the plan opposite. Constructed in the late 2nd century BCE, this dwelling with a double atrium and peristyle was seriously damaged during Sulla's siege of 89 BCE. It subsequently became property of the powerful Sextilii family, and the domus underwent major renovation, which was later followed by further modifications and extensions that saw the addition of a small bathing area and a bakery to the original nucleus of the structure.

Public Buildings

circa 10 CE

Large Palaestra
The "Large Palaestra" consists of a large open air square, approximately 140 x 140 m, surrounded by porticoes and enclosed by a high wall with battlements in which there are 10 doors. All that is left of the centuries-old plane trees that were on the three sides of the great courtyard at the time of the eruption are moulds of the roots and there lies a 23 x 35 m pool at the centre. It was built in the Augustan period, at the beginning of the 1st century CE, and was intended for the physical and intellectual training of young citizens. Many erotic or poetic graffiti have been left by visitors on the walls and columns. Numerous victims were found during the excavation who had looked for a refuge or a way to escape through the building in vain.

circa 550 BCE

Doric Temple
The Doric Temple, also known as the Sanctuary of Athena and Hercules, stood on the spur that dominated the bay in which the harbour is located, built entirely of limestone (6th century BCE), with a multi-coloured terracotta roof, continually updated over the years, as evidenced by the architectural terracotta now exposed at the Antiquarium. The layout of the temple and the shape of the columns recall the Greek Doric style with adaptations and concessions to the local tradition in the Campania region.

circa 150 BCE

Triangular Forum
The Triangular Forum, which takes its name from its unique shape, stands on a ridge of lava rock that overlooked the valley and the mouth of the river Sarno, and preserves one of the oldest sacred areas in the city dating back to the 6th century BCE. It was accessed from via dei Teatri, through a hallway with six columns that formed the monumental façade, preceded by a public fountain. The inner portico was built in the 2nd century BCE and surrounds the area of the Doric Temple with tuff columns.

circa 70 BCE

Amphitheatre
The Amphitheatre of Pompeii is the oldest surviving Roman amphitheatre. Built around 70 BCE, the current amphitheatre is the earliest Roman amphitheatre known to have been built of stone; previously, they had been built out of wood. The Amphitheater measures 135 meters long and 104 meters wide. The arena (pit) is measured to be 6 meters below ground level. The only internal feature of the Amphitheater at Pompeii was a standard corridor that cut into the base of cavea. This corridor ran the circumference of the amphitheater and is what's used to access the arena.

circa 150 BCE

Theatre
The Large Theatre at Pompeii was built into a natural hill in the second century BCE. This theatre sat roughly 4,000 spectators, and is one of the original permanent stone theatres to stand in Rome. In the Greek style, the tiered seating extends from the orchestra carved out of the hillside. The Roman influence is seen above this gallery where four tiers rested upon an arched corridor. The cavae, audience seating area, was divided into three sections. The lower most section, the ima, was reserved for senators, magistrates, and other noble people.

circa 80 BCE

Small Theatre (Odeon)
The Odeon or theatrum tectum as it was called by the Romans, was built during the early years of the colony (circa 79 BCE), as evidenced by an inscription, as requested by two local magistrates, Marcus Porcius and Caius Quinctius Valgus who also requested the construction of the amphitheatre. This building was dedicated to the representation of the most popular theatrical genre at the time, miming, and could also be used for musical and singing performances. It was richly decorated with multi- coloured marbles whereas large male tuff figures (telamones) supported the steps. The structure was completely covered by a functional roof to improve the acoustics. The plaster of the external masonry retains many graffiti of the spectators of the shows that were held here, sometimes even from very distant regions.

circa 150 BCE

Gladiator Barracks
The building of Gladiator Barracks (Quadriportico dei Teatri) constituted the headquarters of the corporation of gladiators and was used for their training, as indicated by the 120 gladiatorial theme inscriptions found inside the building. After the earthquake of 62 AD the structure changed its function and became a private home, probably based on the decision taken by the Senate of Rome to dissolve gladiators’ associations after a violent riot broke out between the people from Pompeii and those from Nocera.

circa 80 BCE

Forum Baths
The Forum Baths are located behind the Templ of Jupiter and date back to the years immediately after the founding of the colony of veterans by General Silla (80 BCE). Women's and men's quarters had separate entrances. The men's section presents an apodyterium (dressing room), used also as a tepidarium (for medium temperature baths), frigidarium (for cold baths) and calidarium (for hot baths). Like many buildings in Pompeii, the baths were heavily damaged during the earthquake of 62 CE. The current state mainly derives from the results of the subsequent restoration works.

circa 150 BCE

Stabian Baths
The Stabian baths, which date back to the 2nd century BCE, are among the oldest in the ancient Roman world. The main entrance on via dell'Abbondanza leads to a large courtyard. The pool is found to the left, whereas a colonnade is found to the right, which leads to the men's quarters, which are split into the apodyterium (dressing room), with the frigidarium (for cold baths), which leads to the tepidarium (for medium temperature baths) and then to the calidarium (for hot baths).

circa 150 BCE

Macellum
The Macellum of Pompeii was located on the Forum and as the provision market (or macellum) of Pompeii was one of the focal points of the ancient city. The building was constructed in several phases. When the earthquake of 62 CE destroyed large parts of Pompeii, the Macellum was also damaged, and had not been fully repaired until the 79 CE eruption. The Macellum of Pompeii is located outside the northeast corner of the forum.

circa 150 BCE

Lupanar
The Lupanar of Pompeii is the ruins of a brothel in the Ancient Roman city of Pompeii. It is of particular interest for the erotic paintings on its walls. Term Lupanar is Latin for "brothel". The Pompeii lupanar is also known as Lupanare Grande or the "Purpose-Built Brothel". The Lupanar was the largest of the brothels found in Pompeii with 10 rooms. Like other brothels, rooms in the Lupanar were plainly furnished.

circa 130 BCE

Basilica
The Basilica, with its extension of 1,500 square metres, was the most sumptuous building of the Forum, and its space was used to carry out business and for the administration of justice. It is accessed from the Forum through five entrances separated by tuff pillars; inside it is divided into three naves with two rows of brick columns with Ionic capitals. A richly decorated suggestum, where judges sat while judicial affairs were managed, is located at the centre of the short western side. The space was enhanced with an equestrian statue, whereas the walls are richly decorated with stucco like large blocks of marble. The Basilica is dated back to 130-120 BCE and is one of the oldest examples of this type of building in the entire Roman world. It was excavated since the 19th century, when investigations in the Forum square area began.

circa 150 BCE

Forum
The square of the Forum originally looked like a simple open area with an overall regular shape, made of clay and its western side opened on to the Sanctuary of Apollo, whereas the eastern side had a row of shops. The Forum was significantly modified between the 3rd and 2nd century BCE when the shape of the square was regularised, surrounded by porticoes and the bottom paved with slabs of tuff. The axis of the square became the façade of the Temple of Jupiter, aligned with Mount Vesuvius.

circa 65 CE

Forum Granary
Stretching along the western side of the Forum with eight openings separated by brick pillars these were used as storage areas for the fruit and vegetable market (Forum Holitorium). Today they form the greatest archaeological inventory of the city and have more than 9000 artefacts from the excavations in Pompeii and its territory since the end of the 19th century. They preserve the terracotta crockery that was used in the last decades of life of the city for every day activities, such as pots and pans for cooking, jugs and bottles, and amphorae, large containers used to transport oil, wine and fish sauce throughout the Mediterranean. The exhibited items also include marble tables and baths for fountains that adorned the entrances of houses and some casts of victims of the eruption as well as that of a dog and a tree. The building was built after the earthquake of 62 CE and it might have not been completed at the time of the eruption.

circa 150 BCE

Eumachia
The building of Eumachia, the largest building near the forum of Pompeii, is commonly broken down into three parts, the chalcidicum, the porticus and the crypta. The chalcidicum encompasses the front of the building and is an important part of the continuous portico running along the east of the forum. The porticus is a four sided colonnade surrounding a large court yard. Finally the crypta is a large corridor behind the porticus on the north east and south sides, separated from the porticus by a single wall.

Commercial Establishments

circa

Fullonica of Stephanus
(Fullonica Stephani)

City Gates

circa 150 BCE

Nola Gate
Nola Gate is called such because it led to the road towards the old centre of Nola. An inscription in the Oscan language on the façade of the gate, which is now in the British Museum, attributes the construction to the highest official in charge, Vibius Popidius, in the Samnite era (3rd century BCE). The Gate has hangings in regularly overlapped tuff blocks and a barrel vault made of concerete, that is a mixture of mortar and stones.

circa 150 BCE

Herculaneum Gate
The gate, built after the city was conquered by the Roman general Sulla in 89 BCE, has no defensive structures because it was built at a time when the walls lost their function. It has three fornix, of which those at the sides are smaller and the central vault has partially collapsed. It owes its name to the fact that the road which connected Pompeii with Herculaneum emerged from here. In the inside the adjacent walls belong to an earlier time than the Samnite era (2nd century BCE), the great staircase with steps made of tuff had to provide easy access to the walkway. A section of the walls can be seen outside the door, on the left, built with large blocks of tuff and arranged in a regular layout with a height of 7 meters.

circa 150 BCE

Nocera Gate
The original layout of this gate, which provided access from the road that led to Nocera to the south-eastern area of the city, dates back to the Samnite era (4th century BCE) although the currently visible appearance is the result of various subsequent restorations. The gate has architectural similarities with Nola Gate and Stabia Gate: there is a room with a barrel vault where the actual gate was located and an aisle thereafter with two bastions at the ends to protect the entrance.

circa 150 BCE

Marina Gate
This gate provides access to the west of the city and it is the most impressive among the seven gates of Pompeii. The name derives from the fact that the exit road led to the sea. The layout with a barrel vault made of concrete, that is a mixture of mortar and stones, dates back to the Silla colony (80 BCE). The gate has two fornix, the main one being higher, intended for the passage of horses and pack animals; the smaller one, intended for pedestrian passage. The city wall that can be seen today, already in place in the 6th century BC, is over 3200 m long: it consists of a double wall with a walkway, protected inside by an embankment.

Necropoles

circa 150 BCE

Necropolis of Nocera Gate
The necropolis is set on the sides of a road that runs parallel with the city walls. There are several burial monuments that exemplify the most popular models at the beginning of the 1st century BCE, the period when the necropolis began to be visited, and 79 CE. These include the tomb of Eumachia, the priestess who financed the construction of a large building in the Forum dedicated to Augustan Concord and Piety. Here, inside an enclosure, there is the high basis over which a semi-circular (exedra) opens up, inside of which the burial chamber is found.

Others

circa 150 BCE

Garden of the Fugitives
This area, once hosting homes, had been transformed in a vineyard in the years preceding the eruption, with a triclinium for outdoor banquets covered by a pergola.13 victims, adults and children, were found at various points inside the enclosure, seized by death while trying to find a way out of Nocera Gate, running above the layer of pumice stones that had already reached a height of 3.5 meters. The casts of the 13 victims can now be seen near the back wall of the garden, inside a glass case.

Suburban Villas

circa 60/70 BCE

Villa of the Mysteries
The Villa of the Mysteries (Villa dei Misteri) is named after the hall of mysteries located in the residential part of the building, which faces the sea. A large continuous fresco that covers three walls, one of the most preserved ancient paintings, depicts a mysterious rite, that is reserved for the devotees of the cult. The scene is linked with Dionysus, who appears on the central wall with his wife, Ariadne. The house preserves wonderful examples of second style wall decoration, that is with depictions of architecture. Egyptian inspired miniature paintings are seen in the tablinum.

circa

Villa of the Mosaic Columns
The Villa of the Mosaic Columns (Villa delle Colonne a Mosaico) is one of the biggest and most important residents of Pompeii on the main road to the city of Herculaneum. is located just outside the city walls, if you exit via Ercolano Gates. It was named so after the original columns, carrying mosaic decorations, now kept in the Naples Archaeological Museum. There is a beautiful mosaic fountain in the inside garden. Down the street, near the villa, you can see a necropolis with several tombs.

circa

Villa of Cicero
The Villa of Cicero (Villa di Cicerone) stands on the Herculaneum road outside Pompeii at the Herculaneum Gate of the city. The mosaics from this villa are today kept in Naples, and they undoubtedly represent an example of the excellent craftsmanship of the ancient architects of Pompeii. Villa itself was covered with earth as early as 1763. Today, only a few stones protrude from under the ground. Almost the entire building remains underground.

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Villa of Diomedes
The Villa of Diomedes (Villa di Diomede) was one of the first buildings to be excavated in Pompeii and was a key destination for all travellers in the 19th century, as evidenced by the numerous graffiti that bear the names of famous travellers, such as the Count of Cavour. It develops scenically on three levels, opening with gardens and pools towards the ancient coastline. It is one of the largest buildings of the entire city with an area of 3500 square metres. Upon entering, one accesses the peristylium directly, around which there are the most important rooms of the house, such as the triclinium.

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