Giza Plateau, Egypt


Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes (often identified with Narmer). Today the remains of this once mighty covilization are spread across the whole modern country of Egypt.

Featured Article: Theban Mapping Project

The Theban Mapping Project is an initiative aimed at creating a comprehensive and accurate digital map of the Valley of the Kings and other key archaeological sites in Thebes, Egypt. The project was founded in 1997 CE by Egyptologist Dr. Kent Weeks and has since grown into a major international effort to document and preserve the rich cultural heritage of this ancient city. The ultimate goal of the project is to create a complete digital atlas of the Valley of the Kings, including all known tombs and monuments. The Theban Mapping Project is an important example of how modern technology and scientific techniques can be used to document and preserve the rich cultural heritage of ancient civilizations. By creating accurate and detailed maps of the Valley of the Kings and other key sites in Thebes, the project is helping to ensure that this important cultural heritage will be preserved for future. Explore >

Featured Article: Avaris Statue

Manfred Bietek, while excavating tombs in the ancient Egyptian city of Avaris (Tell el-Daba), with the Austrian Archaeological Institute discovered the remains of a large statue. Over a two-year period, 1986 to 1988, the team uncovered its broken pieces and was able to put much of it back together. The statue is significant because it provides evidence of the cultural and religious diversity in ancient Egypt, as well as a possible link with the biblical narrative in the region. However, the authenticity of the Avaris statue of Joseph has been a topic of debate among scholars. While some believe that the statue is genuine and provides evidence of the biblical story of Joseph in Egypt, others argue that the statue is a later Egyptian depiction of a local governor and has no direct connection to the biblical Joseph. Explore >

Featured Article: Tombs in the Valley of the Kings

A comprehensive list of the known tombs and burials in the Valley of the Kings. The list includes descriptions and actual photographs of the tombs. This article deals with the of burials in the Valley of the Kings, in Thebes (modern Luxor in Egypt) and nearby areas. Egyptologists use the acronym KV (standing for Kings' Valley) to designate tombs located in the Valley of the Kings. Tombs that have been discovered since then have been allocated a sequential KV number (those in the Western Valley are known by the WV equivalent) in the order of their discovery. The tombs in the Valley of the Kings were designed to protect the pharaohs’ mummified bodies and treasures from tomb robbers. The walls of the tombs are decorated with colorful and intricate paintings and carvings that depict scenes from Egyptian mythology, religious rituals, and daily life.Explore >

Featured Article: The Procession of the Aamu

An ancient Egyptian painting in the tomb of 12th Dynasty official Khnumhotep II, at Beni Hasan (circa 1900 BCE), shows a group of West Asiatic foreigners, possibly Canaanites, labelled as Aamu, including the leading man with a Nubian ibex labelled "Abisha the Hyksos" (Heqa-kasut for "Hyksos").

The Aamu people from this relief are further labeled as being from the area of Shu, which may be identified, with some uncertainty, with the area of Moab in southern Palestine, around the Jordan river, or generally the southern Levant, just east of the Jordan river and the Red Sea.

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Featured Article: The So-Called "Tombs of the Nobles"

The tombs of the nobles in Egypt are a group of ancient burial sites located throughout the country, which were used by the non-royal elite during the New Kingdom period. These tombs were built for wealthy officials, military leaders, and other prominent individuals, and were typically located near their place of work or in the nearby hills. Many of the tombs of the nobles are decorated with colorful and intricate paintings and carvings that depict scenes from Egyptian mythology, religious rituals, and daily life. These decorations provide important information about ancient Egyptian religion, art, and culture, and offer a glimpse into the beliefs and daily life of the non-royal elite. Explore >
List of the Nobles' Tombs in Amarna, Aswan, Luxor, Saqqara.

Rosetta Stone 3D

In 1802 the stone arrived in England and was offered to the British Museum, where it has remained since. It is part of a grey and pink granodiorite stela bearing priestly decree concerning Ptolemy V in three blocks of text: Hieroglyphic (14 lines), Demotic (32 lines) and Greek (54 lines). The inscription is a decree passed by a council of priests, one of a series that affirm the royal cult of the 13 year-old Ptolemy V on the first anniversary of his coronation.

This 3D model of the Rosetta Stone was publiched by the British Museum, as part of their larger attempt to capture as many of our iconic pieces from the collection.

Pyramid of Menkaure

This pyramid was built approximately between 2532 and 2515, during the reign of Pharaoh Menkaure. He was a Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty. We are here in the middle of the old empire. The Menkaure Pyramid is the third pyramid of the plateau of Giza. Much smaller than Khufu and Khafra, it marks the end of the era of giant pyramids. If it seems less interesting than the other two, it also introduces a number of innovative architectural elements. The pyramid of Menkaure was built in the Necropolis of Giza, southeast of the pyramid of his father, which was built in the south-east of that of his own father. This choice was not trivial.

Giza Pyramid Complex | Pyramid of Menkaure

Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut

Also known as the Djeser-Djeseru, the "Holy of Holies" in Ancient Egyptian language, the temple was built for the 18th dynasty Pharaoh Hatshepsut, the longest reigning female pharaoh, regarded by historians as one of the most successful leaders of Ancient Egypt and as the "first great woman in history". The sanctuary is a mortuary, or memorial, temple, constructed in honour of the pharaoh under which it was built. Despite being around 3500 years old, its long colonnaded terrace almost looks like contemporary architecture, and the elegant symmetry contrasts strikingly with the rugged cliff face that looms above it. In its heyday, the Temple of Hatshepsut would have been surrounded by glorious gardens filled with exotic trees and plants, reached via a sphinx-lined avenue. Over the millennia, as well as the usual erosion and decay suffered by the ancient monuments, the temple was vandalised by Haptshepsut's stepson Tuthmosis III and the early Christians, amongst others.

Hatshepsut's Temple | Deir el-Bahari

Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak Temple

The hall was built by Seti I who inscribed the northern wing. The outer walls depict Seti’s battles. The massive columns in the hypostyle hall dwarfs the people and there is still some paint surviving on the under side of the capitals. The hall covers an area of 50,000 square ft (5,000 square meters) and filled with 134 gigantic stone columns with 12 larger columns standing 80 feet (24 meters) high lining the central aisle. The southern wing was completed by Ramesses II but he usurped the decorations of his father along the main processional walk ways. The south wall is inscribed with a record of Ramesses II’s peace treaty with the Hittites which he signed in 21st year of his reign. Later pharaohs including Ramesses III, Ramesses IV and Ramesses VI added inscriptions to the walls and the columns.

Karnak Temple Complex | Precinct of Amun-re | Great Hypostyle Hall

Khufu's Great Pyramid at Giza

Pharaoh Khufu began the first Giza pyramid project, circa 2550 BCE. It was the first of the pyramids to be built on the Giza Plateau. It was built as a tomb for the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Khufu over a period of around 27 years. It is believed that Khufu's cousin and vizier, Hemiunu was the architect of the Great Pyramid. His Great Pyramid is the largest in Giza and towers some 481 feet (147 meters) above the plateau. Its estimated 2.3 million stone blocks each weigh an average of 2.5 to 15 tons. Construction of the Great Pyramid was completed around 2560 BCE, and it was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years.

Funerary Complex of Khufu | Pyramid of Khufu