History and Archaeology of Ancient Rome



By the Editors of the Madain Project

The Historic and Ancient city of Rome was the capital city of the civilization of Ancient Rome. It was located near the west coast of central Italy. Today, Rome is the capital of the country of Italy. The city started out small, but grew as the empire grew.

In historiography, ancient Rome describes Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BCE to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century CE, in turn encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753–509 BCE), Roman Republic (509–27 BCE) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 CE) until the fall of the western empire.

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Brief History of Ancient Rome

Founded in 754 BCE, Ancient Rome emerged from humble beginnings to become a dominant civilization that profoundly shaped Western history. During the Roman Kingdom, it thrived as a monarchy until 509 BCE when the Roman Republic was established, bringing with it a system of representative government. The Republic expanded its influence through military conquests, exemplified by the Punic Wars with Carthage. In 27 BCE, the Republic gave way to the Roman Empire under Augustus, ushering in a period of imperial rule and remarkable growth. The Pax Romana, a time of relative peace, facilitated economic prosperity, extensive infrastructure development, and cultural achievements.

However, internal strife, economic challenges, and external pressures gradually weakened the Western Roman Empire. In 476 CE, the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the Germanic chieftain Odoacer, marking the symbolic end of Ancient Rome's Western Empire, while the Eastern Byzantine Empire continued to flourish until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE.

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Archaeology of Ancient Rome

Featured Article Imperial Complex of Maxentius

The imperial complex of Roman emperor Maxentius was situated on the ancient Appian Way (Via Appia Antica) on the northern side. The immense complex included three large structures, a circus, a residential palace or villa of Maxentius and the dynastic mausoleum. Although, Maxentius is known to have ruled for only about six years, a number of important building projects date from his short reign, including this villa-complex, a basilica in the Roman Forum.

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