The Historic and Ancient city of Rome was the capital city of the civilization of Ancient Rome. It was located near the west coast of central Italy. Today, Rome is the capital of the country of Italy. The city started out small, but grew as the empire grew.
In historiography, ancient Rome describes Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BCE to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century CE, in turn encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753–509 BCE), Roman Republic (509–27 BCE) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 CE) until the fall of the western empire.
Founded in 754 BCE, Ancient Rome emerged from humble beginnings to become a dominant civilization that profoundly shaped Western history. During the Roman Kingdom, it thrived as a monarchy until 509 BCE when the Roman Republic was established, bringing with it a system of representative government. The Republic expanded its influence through military conquests, exemplified by the Punic Wars with Carthage. In 27 BCE, the Republic gave way to the Roman Empire under Augustus, ushering in a period of imperial rule and remarkable growth. The Pax Romana, a time of relative peace, facilitated economic prosperity, extensive infrastructure development, and cultural achievements.
However, internal strife, economic challenges, and external pressures gradually weakened the Western Roman Empire. In 476 CE, the last Roman emperor, Romulus Augustulus, was deposed by the Germanic chieftain Odoacer, marking the symbolic end of Ancient Rome's Western Empire, while the Eastern Byzantine Empire continued to flourish until the fall of Constantinople in 1453 CE.
The Arch of Titus, an iconic ancient Roman monument, celebrates Emperor Titus's victories and is a symbol of Rome's rich history and enduring legacy. Read more
The Saint Peter's Complex, a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture, in Vatican City is an awe-inspiring testament to the convergence of art, faith, and history. Read more
This historic area of Roman Forum served as the political, religious, and commercial center of the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Read more
For many years, the Roman Forum served as the core of the ancient city of Rome, where people could find and admire civic, legal, and social buildings and monuments. Starting from the mid-first century BCE, starting with Caesar and ending with emperor Trajan, new public spaces, called fora, were built. These fora, built by Roman emperors during the Roman imperial period, were used for important public events and was designed to use monumental art and architecture to convey ideological messages.
Founded in the fourth century BCE and located just a short distance from Rome, it is an extraordinary archaeological site that provides a vivid glimpse into the daily life, commerce, and culture of ancient Rome. Read more
Believed to be the site where the mythical she-wolf, Lupa, nursed and raised the twin brothers, Romulus and Remus, is one of the most iconic and historically significant of the seven hills of Rome. Read more
The Baths of Caracalla (Terme di Caracalla) are renowned for their sheer scale and architectural sophistication, offering a window into the opulent leisure activities of ancient Roman society. Read more
The park is located in the southern part of Rome, near the Appian Way, one of the most important ancient roads in the world. The Caffarella Valley, which gives the park its name, is a pastoral landscape that has been cultivated since ancient times. The valley was once a fertile agricultural area, and many of the traditional farming practices are still in use today. One of the main attractions in the park is the Ninfeo di Egeria, an ancient structure that was once part of a sanctuary dedicated to the goddess Egeria.
The Forum of Augustus (Foro di Augusto) was commissioned by Emperor Augustus as a means of commemorating his victory over Julius Caesar's assassins, thus securing his rule and the beginning of the Pax Romana. Read more
The Arch of Malborghetto, originally built in the first half of the fourth century, was an ancient Roman quadrifrons arch situated approximately nineteen kilometers to the north of Rome along the via Flaminia. Read more
Trajan's Forum was the last of the Imperial fora to be built, designed by the renowned architect Apollodorus of Damascus. The Forum's location is nestled between the Quirinal and Capitoline Hills. Read more
The construction of Pantheon was initiatied in 27 BCE by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, probably as a building of the ordinary Classical temple type rectangular with a gabled roof supported by a colonnade on all sides and then completely rebuilt by emperor Hadrian sometime between 118 and 128 CE, and some alterations were made in the early 3rd century by the emperors Septimius Severus and Caracalla. It was built as Temple dedicated to the pantheon of Roman gods but since 609 CE it was consecrated as a Catholic church.
The Colosseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, constructed over a period of approximately eight years (between 70 to 80 CE), is one of the most iconic and enduring symbols of ancient Rome. Read more
Rising above the Roman Forum and flanked by the Tabularium, the Capitoline Hill, Campidoglio, has played a central role in the city's history, serving as a symbolic and political focal point for over two millennia. Read more
Originally established as an oppidum by the people of the Latial culture, Antium evolved into a formidable stronghold for the Volsci people until the inevitable tide of Roman conquest swept over its storied grounds. Read more
Dedicated in 498 BCE, the Temple of Saturn is the oldest sacred place in Rome, after the Temples of Vesta and Jupiter. It was rebuilt in 42 BCE and again, in the fourth century CE, by the SPQR - Senatus Populusque Romanus (senate and people of Rome), as recorded on the architrave. Because of the link of Saturn with agriculture, the original source of Rome's wealth, the temple was the repository for the State treasury, the Aerarium Populi Roman (from aes, bronze), which was located beneath the stairs under the high podium. It also contained the bronze tablets on which Roman law was inscribed.
The Foro Boario was an ancient Roman cattle marketplace located in the heart of Rome. It was one of the city's oldest and most important commercial centers and played a significant role in trade and commerce during the Roman Republic and Empire. Read more
Often referred to simply as Largo Argentina, is an archaeological site located in the historic center of Rome. The archaeological site at Largo Argentina contains the remains of four Roman temples dating from the 3rd to the 1st century BCE. Read more
It is the spiritual and administrative center of the Roman Catholic Church and serves as the residence of the Pope. Vatican City is the spiritual heart of the Catholic Church, home to St. Peter's Basilica, one of the largest and most renowned Christian churches. Read more
The Seven Hills of Rome are a group of seven hills that were the original settlements of the ancient city of Rome. These hills are the Aventine Hill, Caelian Hill, Capitoline Hill, Esquiline Hill, Palatine Hill, Quirinal Hill, and Viminal Hill. Each of these hills has its own unique history, and many famous landmarks and monuments can be found on them. The Capitoline Hill, for example, is home to the Capitoline Museums and the famous Piazza del Campidoglio. The Seven Hills of Rome offer a glimpse into the rich history of the city.
The Forum of Caesar was built by Julius Caesar, one of the most prominent figures in Roman history, around 46 BCE. It was part of his ambitious urban development projects in Rome. The forum served multiple purposes, including political, commercial, and religious functions. Read more
Castel Sant'Angelo was originally commissioned by the Roman Emperor Hadrian as a mausoleum for himself and his family. Construction began in 135 CE, and it served as a tomb for several Roman emperors. In the Middle Ages, Castel Sant'Angelo was converted into a fortress. Read more
The walls, made of large blocks of tuff and concrete, were built to encircle and protect the city of Rome from external threats, particularly from invading barbarian tribes. The construction of the Aurelian Walls began in 271 CE during the reign of the Roman Emperor Aurelian, from whom they derive their name. Read more
The Ara Pacis Augustae, or Altar of Augustan Peace, stands as a constant reminder of Augustus' visionary leadership and the significance of Pax Romana. Erected between years 13 and 9 BCE, this intricately carved white marble altar exemplifies the fusion of art, architecture, and political propaganda. It was commissioned to commemorate Augustus' return to Rome after his military successes in Hispania and Gaul. The marble altar showcases intricate and serpentine reliefs depicting various allegorical and mythological scenes, reflecting Augustus' ideal of social harmony, stability, and cultural prosperity under his rule.
The Forum of Nerva was constructed between 97 and 98 AD during the reign of the Roman Emperor Nerva, who ruled for a brief period. It is one of the smallest and least grand of the Imperial Forums. The forum is located in close proximity to the Roman Forum and is part of a complex that includes the Forum of Augustus and the Forum of Trajan. Read more
The mausoleum of emperor Augustus was a massive circular structure with several tiers, featuring a central burial chamber where the ashes of Augustus and his family members were interred. The mausoleum held the remains of several emperors and important figures, including Augustus himself, Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius. Read more
Trajan's Market, situated on the slopes of the Quirinal Hill, was built in the early second century CE during the reign of the Emperor Trajan, after whom it is named. The construction of multi-level and semi-circular complex was part of a larger project that included the construction of Trajan's Forum, Basilica Ulpia and Trajan's Column. Read more
The Res Gestae Divi Augusti, literally meaning "The Deeds of the Divine Augustus," was an autobiographical inscription that offered a unique and intimate glimpse into the life, achievements, and legacy of first Roman Emperor Augustus. The text itself was most likely composed during his lifetime and may have underwent several revisions. The Res Gestae is a testament to Augustus' meticulous efforts to shape his own narrative and secure his place in history. The original version, inscribed in Latin on bronze plaques or columns and positioned at the entrance of Augustus' mausoleum, has been lost to time.
The Museum of the Ara Pacis was designed by architect Richard Meier and opened in 2006 CE. It was constructed to provide a permanent home for the Ara Pacis Augustae, which was commissioned by the Roman Senate to honor Augustus and celebrate the peace brought about by his rule. it was completed in 9 BCE. Read more
The villa was originally built in the second century CE and was owned by the Quintilii brothers, Sextus Quintilius Condianus and Sextus Quintilius Valerius Maximus. The villa complex included luxurious residential quarters, gardens, courtyards, thermal baths, a large ornamental pool, and even a hippodrome for horse racing. Read more
The nymphaeum was built in honor of Egeria, a water nymph from Roman mythology. Egeria was associated with water and fertility, and she was believed to be a divine figure connected to springs and flowing water. It is a somewhat well-preserved structure that served as a sanctuary and a place for religious rituals. Read more
During antiquity the monumental building, covering an area of approximately six thousand square meters, was known as Basilica Nova (the new basilica) was one of the most impressive buildings in the Roman Forum. The construction started during the time of emperor Maxentius (reigned 306-312 CE) and the structure was completed during the reign of emperor Constantine (reigned 306-337 CE). The original design of Maxentian era was somewhat altered during under Constantine when a second porticoed entrance from the Via Sacra was added to the basilica in addition to the original entrance from the south.
The Circus Maximus, situated in a valley between the Palatine and Aventine Hills, was one of Rome's oldest and largest entertainment venues, with its origins dating back to the sixth century BCE. It was initially used for chariot races and other public spectacles. The stadium was an enormous structure, stretching approx. 600m in length and 140m in width. Read more
The Portus Romae served as the principal maritime port of ancient city of Rome during the Imperial period. Portus played a crucial role in the transportation of goods, supplies, and people to and from the city of Rome. Originally, constructed during the reign of Emperor Claudius in 42 CE, Portus underwent subsequent expansions and developments under emperors like Nero and Trajan. Read more
The Arch of Constantine (Arco di Costantino), an awe-inspiring triumphal arch, was erected in 315 CE to commemorate the victory of Emperor Constantine I in the Battle of Milvian Bridge. Many of the decorative sculptures, including statues and reliefs, were taken from earlier imperial buildings, possibly from the time of Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius. Read more
The imperial complex of Roman emperor Maxentius was situated on the ancient Appian Way (Via Appia Antica) on the northern side. The immense complex included three large structures, a circus, a residential palace or villa of Maxentius and the dynastic mausoleum. Although, Maxentius is known to have ruled for only about six years, a number of important building projects date from his short reign, including this villa-complex, a basilica in the Roman Forum.
The Circo di Massenzio is one of the better-preserved ancient circuses and is known for its historical significance and architectural features. The Circus of Maxentius was built during the early fourth century CE, during the reign of the Roman Emperor Maxentius. It is one of the last and largest circuses constructed in ancient Rome. Read more
The Pyramid of Cestius (Piramide di Caio Cestio), an ancient pyramid-shaped tomb, it is one of the few surviving examples of pyramidal structures from ancient Rome. Built as a tomb for Gaius Cestius, a Roman magistrate and member of the religious corporation, it was constructed between 18-12 BCE. Read more
The dynastic mausoleum of emperor Maxentius was built during the early fourth century CE, during the reign of the Roman Emperor Maxentius. He was a prominent figure during the tumultuous period known as the Crisis of the Third Century. The mausoleum is situated outside the city walls of ancient Rome, along the Appian Way (Via Appia Antica). Read more
The Caelian Hill (Celio), is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, which are prominent geographical features in the historic center of Rome. Located southeast of the Roman Forum it runs between the Palatine Hill (another of the Seven Hills) to the west and the Esquiline Hill to the north. Read more
The Castrense Amphitheatre was built during the third century CE, likely in the late Roman Empire. Its construction is attributed to the Emperor Maxentius, who also constructed the nearby Basilica of Maxentius. The amphitheater is situated in the southeastern part of Rome, not far from the Aurelian Walls. Read more
The Esquiline Hill is located northeast of the Roman Forum, near the center of Rome. In ancient Rome, it was known for its residential neighborhoods, gardens, and villas. It was densely populated and featured the residences of both wealthy Romans and common citizens. Read more
The Ludus Magnus, also known as the "Great Gladiatorial Training School," was an ancient Roman training facility for gladiators located in the ancient city of Rome, near the Colosseo. It was one of several such training schools in ancient Rome where gladiators were prepared for combat in the arenas. Read more
The Aventine Hill, known for its green spaces and gardens, is one of the seven hills on which ancient Rome was built. It is situated on the left bank of the Tiber River, across from the Palatine Hill and the Roman Forum. In ancient Rome, the Aventine Hill was not only associated with various legends and historical events but has played a role in the cultural and religious life. Read more
The Forum of Peace, known as the "Forum Pacis" in Latin, was an ancient Roman forum located in Rome. It was built to commemorate the end of the civil wars and the establishment of peace in the Roman Empire. The construction began in 71 CE during the reign of the Roman Emperor Vespasian and was completed by his son Titus. Read more
The mausoleum was built during the late Republican period of ancient Rome, around 30-20 BCE. It is named after Caecilia Metella, the daughter of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Creticus, a Roman consul. The Mausoleum of Caecilia Metella is a cylindrical tomb with a large base made of travertine stone. Read more
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