The lower city is located on the north-west foothills of the fortress. The lower city structures contained offices of the district capital, palace rooms for the visitors and family, Roman garden, and a lake. It extended beyond the modern road, and include another bathhouse and other structures.
From 1972, excavations were carried out by Ehud Netzer, working on behalf of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and they were intermittent until the archaeologist's death in 2010. Netzer excavated mostly the lower palace, at the base of the hill.
The pool with its small circular island in the middle is most impressive and prominent feature in the wilderness. The remains of the colonnaded garden are clear. A few remains of the water channel have been found on the way from Jerusalem to Herodion. The artificial island at the pool's center is thought to have sported 3 floors: a nice place to enjoy the breeze and eat a bite, or just relax.
- Herodium (Herodion) National Park Archived 2016-04-04 at the Wayback Machine
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