Depiction of Antonia Fortress in the Holyland Model

By the Editors of the Madain Project

The depiction of Antonia Fortress in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem is majorely based on the textual description by Jewish historian Josephus Flavius.


The representation of the Antonia Fortress in the Holyland Model relies solely on the descriptions provided by Josephus Flavius, who referred to it as the "Tower Antonia." During the later stages of the Second Temple Period, this fortress was occupied by a Roman military garrison. Despite its modest size, this fortified outpost played a pivotal role in overseeing and governing the city of Jerusalem in ancient times.

It is mentioned in the biblical account of rescuing Paul from a furious mob intent on stoning him to death. Subsequently, Paul was held within this fortress until his transfer to Caesarea Maritima, as documented in Acts 21:7–23:31.


circa 66 CE

The model of Antonia during the later days of the Second temple, as described by Josephus Flavius. The model, rectangular in plan is directly adjacent to the north-western corner of the Temple Mount model. The model depicts four fortification towers, one on each corner and integrates in to the second wall of Jerusalem. These towers are joined together with ramparts planned around a central courtyard.

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