History and Archaeology of Cairo (al-Qāhirah)



By the Editors of the Madain Project

The historic city of Cairo (القاهرة‎) is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world. Cairo is associated with ancient Egypt, as the Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, Cairo was founded in 969 CE during the Fatimid dynasty. Cairo is also home to the world's second-oldest institution of higher learning, al-Azhar University.

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Featured Article The Egyptian Museum

The Egyptian Museum in Cairo was the first purpose-built museum in the Middle East and North Africa. The museum is unique in its presentation of the whole history of Egyptian civilization, especially of antiquities of the Pharaonic and Greco-Roman periods. On the ground floor are a number of large and heavy objects, including colossal figures situated inside the middle atrium. At the peak of its collection, the museum stored more than 100,000 items. Treasures include reliefs, sarcophagi, papyri, funerary art and the contents of various tombs, jewelry, ornaments of all kinds, and other objects. Explore

Featured Article Giza Pyramid Complex

Pyramids of Giza, Ahrāmāt al-Jīzah, Giza also spelled Gizeh, three 4th-dynasty (circa 2575–2465 BCE) pyramids erected on a rocky plateau on the west bank of the Nile River near al-Jīzah (Giza) in northern Egypt. Khufu’s pyramid is perhaps the most colossal single building ever erected on the planet. Its sides rise at an angle of 51°52′ and are accurately oriented to the four cardinal points of the compass. Collectively, in ancient times they were included among the Seven Wonders of the World. The designations of the pyramids—Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure—correspond to the kings for whom they were built. The northernmost and oldest pyramid of the group was built for Khufu (Greek: Cheops), the second king of the 4th dynasty. The middle pyramid was built for Khafre (Greek: Chephren), the fourth of the eight kings of the 4th dynasty. The southernmost and last pyramid to be built was that of Menkaure (Greek: Mykerinus), the fifth king of the 4th dynasty. Explore

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