Timeline of Caesarea Maritima

By the Editors of the Madain Project

The Timeline of Caesarea Maritima explores the history of ancient city or Caesarea Maritima in a chronological manner.


Situated along the Mediterranean, the ancient city of Caesarea Maritima stands as a captivating testament to the convergence of history, power, and architectural brilliance of the Roman Empire. Originally established by Abdashtart I, or Straton I king of Sidon, who reigned circa 365-352 BCE, it was totally rebuilt by King Herod the Great in the first century BCE. Named in honor of Emperor Augustus Caesar, the city became a pivotal center for trade, culture, and governance in the ancient world.

The city of Caesarea Maritima flourished as a thriving Roman port city and a grandiose showcase of urban planning. With its sophisticated infrastructure, including a magnificent harbor, an elaborate amphitheater, and an awe-inspiring temple dedicated to Rome and Augustus, Caesarea Maritima embodies the legacy of successive civilizations that have left an indelible mark on its storied landscapes.

Brief Timeline


586-332 BCE
Foundation of a Phoenician settlement in the Persian period.

103 BCE
According to Josephus, the Hasmonean king Alexander Jannaeus conquers the settlement, known as the Straton's Tower.

22-10 BCE
Herod the Great builds the harbor of Sebastos and the city of Caesarea, both named in honor of Herod's patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus (Sebastos in Greek language).

10-9 BCE
Inauguration of Caesarea, maked by great festivities.

6 CE
Caesarea becomes the headquarters of the Roman Governor, when Caesarea became the seat of the Roman procurators of Provincia Judaea and headquarters of the 10th Roman Legion.

58 CE
Saint Paul is arrested and tried in the city of Caesarea.

66 CE
First Jewish revolt in the city. Pagans massacre some 20,000 Jews living in the city at the time.

132-135 CE
Second Jewish Revolt (also known as the Bar Kochba Revolt).

250 and 303 CE
Two waves of anti-Christian persecutions.

502 CE
Emperor Anastasius restores the Herodian era harbor.

484, 529, 555 CE
The Samaritan revolts, during the third wave, the city's governor is killed.

614-628 CE
Persian conquest.

642 CE
Muslim/Arab conquest.

685 CE
Byzantine sack of the city.

985 CE
al-Muqqadisi visits the city.

1101 CE
Crusader conquest. Most of the Muslim is massacred or flees the city.

1187 CE
City is conquered by the Ayyubid sultan Salah al-Din (known to the West as Saladin).

1251 CE
The French king Louis IX (saint Louis) undertakes to rebuild the city-wall, a religious penance.

1265 CE
Conquest by the Mamluk sulan Baybars.

1291 CE
The Mamluk armies raze the city-walls.

1400-1900 CE
Sporadic occupation.

1882 CE
Resettlement by Bosnian refugees.

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