Predynastic Egypt

By the Editors of the Madain Project

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The Predynastic period of ancient Egypt is traditionally defined as the period from the final part of the Neolithic period beginning circa 6000 BCE to the end of the Naqada III period circa 3000 BCE. This era is believed to have been led by the first Pharaoh, who is alternatively known as Narmer or Hor-Aha, and Menes may also have been used to refer to one of these rulers, depending on the Egyptologist.

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The Predynastic-period is the last stage of the Neolithic period, which preceded the invention of writing and the establishment of the state is the Dynastic period. It is characterised by the sedentary societies on the banks of the River Nile and the emergence of cultural centers. During the sixth millennium BCE, the Egyptians were aware of the agriculture and were constructing silo-structures for storing grain.

Moreover, they made pottery with different types that distinguished each stage of this period. In the fifth millennium BCE, the Egyptians built houses of reeds and mud bricks and erected tombs equipped with funerary furniture, the earliest evidence of preserving the bodies of the dead appeared in that period preserving the bodies of the deceased appeared in the that period as well. During the fourth millennium BCE, the Egyptians discovered and amelted minerals and invented the oldest known writing system in history, which was one of the greatest achievements of the Predynastic period.

Approximately during the period between 4500 and 3900 BCE, the first political units of Upper Egypt constituted from aggregations of autonomous cities and urban centers and succeeded in forming several nomes with political and exonomic influence. Then, around 3600 BCE, these nomes came together to form a political commonwealth that was able to proclaim authority on Upper Egypt and extend its political and cultural influence to the Nile Delta region as well.

During the period between 3200 BCE and 3100 BCE, the Egyptians succeeded in bringing together both Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt under one political authority, forming the first capital of the unified state, and establishing a ruling hierarchy based on inheriting the throne, which is essentially called the "The Dynastic Period".

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