Yaqub-Har Seal

By the Editors of the Madain Project

The "Yaqub-Har Seal" is a mud bulla/signet discovered by the egyptologist Manfred Beitak in the area of Tel el-Daba (historically identified with Avaris); an archaeological site in the Nile Delta region of Egypt. The seal is at least one of nine other mud seals (also called bullae) that were discovered in the area.


One of the nine mud seals (inspect) bearing the name of biblical patriarch "Yaqub" (Jacob) found in the remains of a Middle Bronze Age palace. In Exodus Decoded filmmaker Simcha Jacobovici suggested that Yaqub-Har was the Patriarch Jacob, on the basis of a signet ring found (illustration) in the Hyksos capital Avaris that read "Yakov/Yakub" (from Yaqub-her), similar to the Hebrew name of the Biblical patriarch Jacob (Ya'aqov).

Avaris Excavations and Discovery

circa 1700 BCE

The seal (bullae) were found during the excavations in the remains of a Middle Bronze Age Hyksos palace (illustration) in the Avaris area (also known as biblical Goshen). Meruserre Yaqub-Har or Yakubher, also known as Yak-Baal was a pharaoh of Egypt during the 17th or 16th century BCE. As he reigned during Egypt's fragmented Second Intermediate Period, it is difficult to date his reign precisely, and even the dynasty to which he belonged is uncertain.

Other Notable Finds

circa 1700 BCE

Fragmented Statue of an Asiatic Official
The fragments of a colossal statue were also found by excavators in the same layer of Hyksos Palace remains, depicting an Asiatic dignitary. The fragmented statue (inspect) was found in a layer corresponding to the year c. 1700 BCE. Over the statue’s right shoulder you can still see his “throw stick” i.e., the symbol of his rule. Carved out of limestone the colossal statue depicts an asiatic dignitary with a mushroom-shaped coiffure holding a throw-stick at his right shoulder.

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