History and Archaeology of Vatican


Vatican City

By the Editors of the Madain Project

The Vatican City (Citta del Vaticano) is a sovereign city-state and an enclave surrounded by the city of Rome, Italy. It is the smallest independent state in the world by both area and population, with an area of about 44 hectares and a population of around 800 residents. Vatican City is the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church and serves as the residence of the Pope.

Vatican City was established in 1929 CE as a result of the Lateran Treaties between the Holy See and the Kingdom of Italy, which recognized the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See. Today, Vatican City is a unique combination of a religious and political center, and is home to several important religious and cultural institutions, including St. Peter's Basilica, the Sistine Chapel, the Vatican Museums, and the Vatican Library.

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Featured Article Sistine Chapel

The Sistine Chapel (Capella Sistina) was built in the mid-fifteenth century CE and is renowned for its ceiling painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512 CE. The ceiling is one of the most famous works of Renaissance art and depicts scenes from the Book of Genesis, including the famous "Creation of Adam". The Sistine Chapel has been used as a site for papal conclaves and is still used today as a place of worship. The ceiling is a masterpiece of perspective and anatomy, with figures that seem to depict near lifelike features. The Sistine Chapel was also decorated with frescoes by other artists, including Botticelli, Perugino, and Ghirlandaio, who painted scenes from the life of Moses and Jesus on the lower part of the walls.


Featured Article Saint Peter's Complex

The Saint Peter's Complex in Rome is a historical and religious site that includes Saint Peter's Basilica, Saint Peter's Square, the Vatican Museums, and the papal apartments (Apostolic Palace). The complex has a long and rich history, dating back to the fourth century CE when Emperor Constantine built a basilica over the site where Saint Peter was purportedly buried. Over the centuries, several popes have added to and expanded the complex, resulting in the magnificent structures that exist today. The most notable artistic and architectural additions were made by Bramante, Michelangelo, Bernini, and Maderno in the Renaissance and Baroque periods.


Featured Article Codex Vaticanus

The Codex Vaticanus, written in a style known as uncial script, is one of the oldest extant manuscripts of the Greek Bible, specifically the Old and New Testaments. This ancient manuscript is believed to have been written in the 4th century CE and is considered one of the most valuable biblical manuscripts in existence. The Codex Vaticanus is named after the Vatican Library, where it has been housed since at least the 15th century CE. The Codex Vaticanus is a parchment manuscript, and its original format is a quarto, meaning it was made from sheets folded in half.

Uncial Codicies / Explore Codex Vaticanus

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