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Thamud (Nation of Prophet Saleh)
Thamud is the name of an ancient civilization in Hejaz who were known from the 1st millennium BCE to near the time of Muhammad. The oldest known reference to Thamud is a 715 BCE inscription of the Assyrian king Sargon II which mentions them as being among the people of eastern and central Arabia subjugated by the Assyrians but they were living very early even before Abraham when we compare the family tree of Prophets as their Ancestors were Iram and Ars.
A row of tombs from the al-Khuraymat group, Mada'in Saleh. The Quran suggests some kind of relationship between 'Aad and Thamud, and 'Aad may have been a part of Thamud's history and culture. Just as Nuh's (Noah) people were seen as the ancestors of ʿĀad, it seems ʿĀad were seen in a similar relation to Thamud.
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- "Thamūd". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- Houtsma, M. Th.; et al., eds. (1913–1936). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam. E. J. Brill.
- Hitti, Phillip (1970). A History of the Arabs. London: Macmillan. p. 37.
- Matthew S. Gordon, Chase F. Robinson, Everett K. Rowson, Michael Fishbein. Works of Ibn Wāḍiḥ al-Yaʿqūbī (Volume 2): An English Translation. pp. 277 ff.
- "Thamudic (Musnad al Shamali)". Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.
- Siculus, Diodorus (1933). Walton, Francis R. (ed.). Diodorus of Sicily in Twelve Volumes. 2 (Books 2.35-4.58). Translated by Oldfather, C. H. London; Cambridge (Mass.). p. 219. ISBN 978-0-674-99334-1.
- Retsö, Jan (2003). The Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads. Psychology Press. p. 299.
- Pliny the Elder (1949–1954). Natural History. Translated by Rackham, H.; Jones, W.H.S.; Eichholz, D.E. London: William Heinemann. Book VI. Archived from the original on 2016-12-29. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- Hoyland, Robert G. (2001). Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam. Routledge. p. 69. ISBN 0415195349.