By the Editors of the Madain Project

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The Quran, also spelled as Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text of third Abrahamic faith; Islam, believed by Muslims to be a direct revelation from Allah. The entire Quran is organized in 114 suras (chapters) which are further subdivided in to individual ayaat (verses). The holy Quran, besides its religious significance, is widely regarded as the finest work in Arabic literature, and has significantly influenced the Arabic language.


The Quran was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad over a period of approximately 23 years and serves as a comprehensive guide for personal and communal conduct. The Quran is believed by Muslims to be not simply divinely inspired, but the literal words of Allah. It is believed to provide a complete code of conduct that offers guidance in every walk of not only individual life but social as well. This divine character attributed to the Quran led Muslim theologians to fiercely debate whether the Quran was either "created or uncreated".

Brief History

circa 610-632 CE

The history of the holy Quran begins with first revelation sometime in the year 610 CE and continues to this day. The Quran is the holy scripture of Islam, believed to be the literal word of Allah as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad through the archangel Gabriel (Jibrael). This revelation is said to have began in the early seventh century (circa 610 CE) in the ancient city of Mecca and continued for approximately 23 years until the Prophet's death in 632 CE. The Quran was initially memorized and recited by Muhammad's followers, and some portions were recorded or written by the scribes of Wahy on materials such as palm leaves, animal bones, and stones. After the Prophet's death, the community faced the challenge of preserving the Quran accurately and ensuring that its teachings would be maintained for future generations.

In the years following the Prophet's death, the first caliph, Abu Bakr, initiated the collection of the Quran's teachings into a single written document. This process was overseen by Zaid ibn Thabit, a close companion of the Prophet. The completed collection formed the basis of the Quran as we know it today. Under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, the Quran was standardized and copies were sent to various regions to maintain consistency in its recitation. This effort was crucial in preserving the authenticity and integrity of the Quran, ensuring its message would remain unaltered over time.

Chapters of the Holy Quran

circa 610-632 CE

The surahs or the chapters of the Quran contain a varying number of verses called ayahs, and these chapters address various aspects of faith, morality, guidance, and law. The surahs encompass a wide range of themes, including theological discussions, narratives of past prophets, legal and ethical directives, and supplications. Though the surahs are not arranged chronologically, they form a coherent body of spiritual teachings that guide Muslims in all aspects of their lives.

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