The mosque is named after Omar (Umar) ibn al-Khattab (c. 581–644), the second Rashidun Muslim Caliph. Having conquered Jerusalem, Omar had travelled to Bethlehem in 637 CE to issue a law that would guarantee respect for the shrine and safety for Christians and clergy. Only four years after the death of the prophet Muhammad, Omar reportedly prayed at the location of the mosque.
circa 1860 CE
The Mosque of Omar (Arabic: مسجد عمر Masjid Umar) is the oldest and only mosque in the old city of Bethlehem, located in Manger Square, near the Church of the Nativity.