List of Seals (bullae) Found in Palestine/Israel

This page attempts to enlist the mud or clay seals (bulla) found during archaeological excavations in Palestine/Israel

Date Landscape Notes Reference
c. 585 BCE Seal of Gedaliah, Son of Pashur. According to Mazar, the seal dates to the final years of the first temple period - during the reign of Zedekiah, Judah's last king. Three years ago, Mazar also found the seal of Jucal the son of Shelemiah in a nearby location. Jucal is also mentioned as one of Jeremiah's accusers in the same passage.
c. 600 BCE Seal of Yehuchal (or Jehucal) ben Shelemyahu (Shelemiah) is dated to the beginning of the 6th century BCE and bears the name of Yehuchal ben Shelemayahu an official named in the Bible in conjunction was the prophet's doomsday prophecy. N/A
c. 700 BCE Dubbed as "Bulla of Isaiah" it may not have belonged to the Biblical prophet Isaiah. According to Mazar "Without an aleph at the end, the word nvy is most likely just a personal name."
N/A The inscription on the seal of Azariah (IAA 1984-165 (Azariah son of Hilkiah)) reads:
(Belonging) to 'Azaryahu
son of Hilqiyahu
c. 710 BCE The stamped clay seal belonging to Hezekiah, also known as a bulla, was discovered in the Ophel excavations led by Dr. Eilat Mazar at the foot of the southern wall of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. The bulla measures just over a centimeter in diameter bears a seal impression depicting a two-winged sun disk flanked by ankh symbols and containing a Hebrew inscription that reads “Belonging to Hezekiah, (son of) Ahaz, king of Judah.”
c. 750 BCE Seal of King Ahaz, the seal contains an ancient Hebrew inscription mentioning the name of Ahaz of Judah, as well as the name of his father, Yehotam (Jotham), identifying Ahaz as the "king of Judah". The bulla contains a fingerprint which may belong to Ahaz himself.
c. BCE Stamped clay bulla sealed by a servant of King Hezekiah, formerly pressed against a cord; unprovenanced Redondo Beach collection of antiquities
c. 586 BCE East of the House of Ahiel, under the modern pathway, was an archive house, the seal found there bears the name of Gemariah son of Shaphan the scribe - a high ranking officer in the court of King Jehoiakim N/A
c. 600 BCE Known as the Baruch Bulla, it was discovered in 1975 and was studied by Israeli archaeologist Nahman Avigad. Dated to the late 7th or early 6th century BCE, the bulla measures 17 by 16 mm, and is stamped with an oval seal, 13 by 11 mm. A single line borders the impression, and it is divided by double horizontal lines into three registers and . Line 1: lbrkyhw: Belonging to Berechiah, Line 2: bn nryhw: son of Neriah, Line 3: hspr: The scribe
c. 700 BCE The Seal of the Governor. The artefact, inscribed in an ancient Hebrew script as “belonging to the governor of the city”, was likely attached to a shipment or sent as a souvenir on behalf of the governor. The impression, the size of a small coin, depicts two standing men, facing each other in a mirror-like manner and wearing striped garments reaching down to their knees. It was unearthed near the plaza of Judaism’s Western Wall in the Old City of Jerusalem.
c. 700 BCE The Bethlehem Bulla. According to Eli Shukron, “it seems that in the seventh year of the reign of a king (it is unclear if the king referred to here is Hezekiah, Manasseh or Josiah), a shipment was dispatched from Bethlehem to the king in Jerusalem dating back to late eighth and seventh centuries BCE." This is the first time the name Bethlehem appears outside the Bible, in an inscription from the First Temple period.
c. 700 BCE Seal of Ga’alyahu son of Immer (possibly). Made of clay it was originally attached to a document or a parcel, and is black in color as a result of being burned. According to Dr. Gabriel Barkay, "The letters preserved on the middle register are “ליהו” “…lyhw” while the bottom register reads “אמר…” “…)mr”. In light of another published seal, it may be possible to complete the writing as “לגא]ליהו.[בן]אמר]” (Belonging to Ga’alyahu son of Immer)".
c. 1000 BCE Seal of Matanyahu, its a personal Hebrew seal from the end of the First Temple period was discovered on the floor of the ancient building. The seal is made of a semi-precious stone and is engraved with the name of its owner: “Lematanyahu Ben Ho…” meaning: “Belonging to Matanyahu Ben Ho…”). The rest of the inscription is erased."
c. 1000 BCE Bulla of Benaiah son of Hoshaiah
c. BCE Bulla of Achiav ben Menachem. These two names are known in the context of the Kingdom of Israel: Menachem was a king of Israel, while Achiav does not appear in the Bible, but his name resembles that of Achav (Ahab), the infamous king of Israel from the tales of the prophet Elijah. Though the spelling of the name differs somewhat, it appears to be the same name, mentioned by Josephus in his book as well.
c. 10 CE The Menorah Seal. This Lead bullae, due to the symbol on it, clearly was probably used by a high priest, or one of the leaders of the wars against Rome. The authenticity of this lead bulla is not known, it may very well be a fake.
Latest Update: May 8, 2018