Jordan (الأردن) officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية) is an Arab country in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is rich in Paleolithic (up to 20,000 years ago) remains due to its location within the Levant where expansions of hominids out of Africa converged. Fortified towns and urban centers first emerged in the southern Levant early on in the Bronze Age (3600–1200 BCE). The Transjordanian kingdoms of Ammon, Edom and Moab were in continuous conflict with the neighbouring Hebrew kingdoms of Israel and Judah, centered west of the Jordan River.
The so-called Treasury (or Khazneh) is one of the most famous rock-cut façades of the iconic monuments of Petra. Named to the “New Wonders of the World” list in 2007, it is known to most people as the scene of the climax of the hit movie, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, in which it is portrayed as the location of the legendary Holy Grail. However, in reality, it was built possibly as early as the fifth century BCE by the Nabataeans, a culture of traders who established the city.
The Mādabā mosaic map, thought to be the oldest surviving map of Palestine and the neighbouring territories. The mosaic map, which formed the floor of one of the many ruined ancient churches in Mādabā, was discovered in 1884. The map dates from the 6th century CE, was originally 72 by 23 feet (22 by 7 metres) in size, and showed the area from ancient Byblos (modern Jubayl, Leb.) in the north to Thebes (Egypt) in the south and from the Mediterranean Sea in the west to Amman, Al-Karak, and Petra in the east.
The Mādabā map is of particular interest because of its detailed plan of Jerusalem and its numerous place-names in the Negev that are not mentioned in other sources. By 1896, when the map came to the attention of scholars, much of it had been damaged.