Four Room House
A four-room house, also known as an "Israelite house" or a "pillared house" is the name given to the mud and stone houses characteristic of the Iron Age of Levant. Also referred to as “Israelite house” and “pillared courtyard house,” emerged in the central highlands of Canaan during the late 13th -early 12th centuries BCE in response to environmental and socio-economic needs.
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Four Room House (n.d.). Retrieved on August 04, 2021, from https://madainproject.com/four_room_house
Four Room House. Madain Project, madainproject.com/four_room_house.
"Four Room House.” Madain Project, n.d. https://madainproject.com/four_room_house.
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The design was based on a long house with four main spaces - a broad room in the back and three long spaces extending forward from it. The rooms were divided by stone pillars and walls. The central room was a courtyard, which was normally open to let in light since there were no windows in the house.
The four-room house at the Tel Beersheva is one of the most common residential dwelling and some twenty such houses were excavated. Like other places, the four-room house at Beersheba was incorporated in to the casemate wall of adjoining some other line of fortification as a single organic unit. The standard type was a rectangular design covering a total area of 150-200 square meters.
Land of Goshen
Identified with Avaris (modern day archaeological site of Tel el-Daba), remains of 4-Room Houses were also excavated. The city of Avaris was the capital of the Hyksos domain in the north of Egypt; it was excavated by Egyptologist Manfred Bietak. Remains of a number of 4-room dwellings were also discovered during the archaeological excavations.
Dubbed as the House of Ahiel, this four-room house was excavated in the 'Area G' of City of David, Jerusalem. This four-room house was built into and over the Millo around 550 BCE in the days of young Josiah and Jeremiah. There are side rooms, separated by monolithic pillars and piers, and adjoining service rooms to the north. It is one of the best preserved of the Iron Age structures in Area G is Ahiel’s House.
The Houses of Ancient Israel Exhibit
The exhibit offers a view of life in an ancient Near Eastern agricultural society. The exhibit contains a full scale replica of an ancient Israelite home. The exhibit is arranged in terms of the buildings - the houses - associated with the different levels of that society: family dwelling, palace and temple. This exhibit traces the development and importance of the house in ancient Israel, from the family dwelling to the house of the king, and the house of the Lord (the temple).
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- Beersheba Iron Age gate with benches, tb052407951.jpg. (n.d.). Retrieved May 25, 2019, from https://bibleplaces.photoshelter.com/image/I0000viZF6K.Wm7g
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- Shiloh, Y. (1987). The Casemate Wall, the Four Room House, and Early Planning in the Israelite City. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, (268), 3-15. doi:10.2307/1356991
- Bunimovitz, Schlomo; Faust, Avraham (2003). "The four room house: Embodying Iron Age Israelite society". Near Eastern Archaeology. Scholars Press, Atlanta, GA. 66 (1–2): 22–31. doi:10.2307/3210929. JSTOR 3210929.
- Zevit, Ziony (2003). The Religions of Ancient Israel: A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches. Bloomsbury. p. 101 (footnote 32). ISBN 9780826463395. Retrieved 27 January 2017. Israelite house" or a "pillared house" is the name given to the mud and stone houses characteristic of the Iron Age of Levant. Although sometimes considered particularly Israelite, this idea has been challenged. Ziony Zevit writes that "The Iron Age pillared houses, the “four-room house," are not uniquely Israelite. They are found in Iron Age non-Israelite sites such as Tell Kaisan, Tell Abu Hawam IV, and Tell Qasile X, Tell esh-Sharia' VII, but they are unlike the Late Bronze II pillared house dis
- Clark, Douglas R. (2003-01-01). "Bricks, Sweat and Tears: The Human Investment in Constructing a "Four-Room" House". Near Eastern Archaeology. 66 (1/2): 34–43. doi:10.2307/3210930. JSTOR 3210930.
- Harvard Semitic Museum: Houses of Ancient Israel Exhibit, The Houses of Ancient Israel: Domestic, Royal, Divine offers a view of life in an ancient Near Eastern agricultural society. The exhibit contains a full scale replica of an ancient Israelite home. The exhibit is arranged in terms of the buildings - the houses - associated with the different levels of that society: family dwelling, palace and temple.
- Bunimovitz, S. and A. Faust, "Ideology in Stone: Understanding the Four-Room House," Biblical Archaeology Review 28: 32-41.
- Bunimovitz, Shlomo and Avraham Faust. "Building Identity: The Four-Room House and the Israelite Mind." Symbiosis, Symbolism, and the Power of the Past: Canaan, Ancient Israel, and Their Neighbors from the Late Bronze Age through Roman Palaestina., (edited by Dever, W. and S. Gitin, eds). (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2003), 411-424.
- Dever, W, "Ceramic, Ethnicity, and the Question of Israelites Origins," The Biblical Archaeologist 58/1995: 200-213.
- Dever, W. Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From. (William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2003).
- Killebrew, A. E. Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: An Archaeological Study of Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines, and Early Israel 1300-1100 B.C.E.