Adulis (Red Sea Port of Aksumite Kingdom)
Adulis or Aduli is an archaeological site in the Northern Red Sea region of Eritrea, situated about 30 miles south of Massawa in the Gulf of Zula. It was the port of the Kingdom of Aksum, located on the coast of the Red Sea. It was one of the ports of Incense Route.
Roman merchants used the port in the second and third century CE. Control of Adulis allowed Axum to be the major power on the Red Sea. This port was the principal staging area for Kaleb's invasion of the Himyarite kingdom of Dhu Nuwas around 520.
- Peter Thonemann, "Gates of Horn", p. 9.
- Leclant, Jean (1993). Sesto Congresso internazionale di egittologia: atti, Volume 2. International Association of Egyptologists. p. 402. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
- G W Bowersock. The Throne of Adulis: Red Sea wars on the eve of Islam. Oxford: University Press. 2013. ISBN 978 0 19 973932 5 (reviewed by Peter Thonemann in "Gates of Horn", Times Literary Supplement, 6 December 2013, pp. 9–10).
- Stuart Munro-Hay. Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. 1991. ISBN 0-7486-0106-6.
- Yuri M. Kobishchanov. Axum (Joseph W. Michels, editor; Lorraine T. Kapitanoff, translator). University Park, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, 1979. ISBN 0-271-00531-9.