1st Millennium CE

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Date Events Notes Reference
1st Century CE
c. 6 CE Roman Judea Province of Roman Judaea created by merging Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea.
c. 7 CE Jesus (Isa) visits Temple According to the Bible, at age 12 Jesus made a visit with his parents to Jerusalem during the feast of the Passover. St. Luke tells us how suddenly he disappeared and eventually his parents found him in the Temple where, to their great astonishment he was holding a serious conversation with learned men that were astonished by his wisdom.
c. 26 CE Baptism of Jesus Jesus must have been around 30 years old when he met a man called John the Baptist, who had started a religious movement preparing for the coming of the Messiah, or saviour. Jesus was baptized by John in the River Jordan.
c. 30 CE Helena of Adiabene converts to Judaism Vassal Parthian kingdom in Mesopotamia, converts to Judaism. Significant numbers of Adiabene population follow her, later also providing limited support for Jews during Jewish-Roman wars.
c. 33 CE Trial of Jesus by Pontius Pilate Jesus (Isa) is arrested and is brought to the Roman governer for trial on the charges of sedition and herasy.
Ascension of Isa As Jesus is elevated towards heavens, according to Islamic tradition he was
c. 70 CE Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus The Roman Empire conquer Jerusalem and destroy the Second Jewish Temple. Jews are banned from their city by the Roman conqueror.
c. 73 CE First Jewish–Roman War The conquest of Masada by the Roman Empire ends the Jewish Rebellion.
2nd Century CE
c. 132 CE Bar Kokhba revolt The third major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea Province against the rule of the Roman Empire. After the rebellion failed emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province from Iudaea to "Syria Palaestina" in order to complete the dissociation between the Jewish rebels to the region.
3rd Century CE
c. 205 CE Compilation of Mishna Finalized by Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi (Judah the Prince) around the year 200 CE.
c. 250 CE Ashab-i Kahf Seven Sleepers
4th Century CE
c. 312 CE Constantine converts to Christianity He only declared himself a Christian after issuing the Edict of Milan, it is possible (but not certain) that Constantine's mother, Helena, exposed him to Christianity.
c. 324 CE Queen Helena leaves for Holy Land Queen Helena, a devout Christian, wife of Eastern Roman Emperor Constantius and mother of Constantine the Great, departs for the Holy Land and begins the construction of churches.
c. 325 CE First Ecumenical Council at Nicea Christian First Ecumenical Council, at Nicea (Asia Minor), changes the date of Easter from Passover and forbids Jews from owning Christian slaves or converting pagans to Judaism.
c. 326 CE Church of the Nativity is established The Church of the Nativity is comissioned to be built in Bethlehem under the Helena's tutelage, marking the site where according to Christian tradition Jesus was born
c. 330 CE Founding of Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople.
c. 351 CE Jewish revolt against Gallus The Jewish community began a rebellion in the region of Palestine against the Caesar of the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Emperor Constantius Gallus.
c. 352 CE Jewish revolt against Gallus The Jewish revolt against Gallus started a year before was quickly subdued by his general Ursicinus.
c. 362 CE Julian ordered rebuilding of Jewish Temple Roman emperor Julian the Apostate ordered Alypius of Antioch to rebuild the Jewish Temple.
c. 363 CE Galilee earthquake The earthquake resulted in, among other things, a halt in the construction of the Jewish Temple, mainly because the earthquake ruined the early stages of the construction. Eventually the plan to rebuild the Temple was completely dropped after the death of emperor Julian in June 363.
5th Century CE
c. 401 CE Bishop Porphyry Christianity takes root in Gaza thanks to Bishop Porphyry.
c. 425 CE Sanhedrin is disbanded The Sanhedrin is disbanded by the Byzantine Roman Empire.
c. 426 CE Babylonian Talmud compiled
c. 451 CE Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon
c. 500 CE Babylonian Talmud The central text of Rabbinic Judaism, consisting of Mishna (Oral Torah) and Gemara (elucidation of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings).
6th Century CE
c. 545 CE Birth of Abdullah Muhammad's father
c. 549 CE Birth of abu Lahab
c. 570 CE Death of Abdullah Muhammad's father April/May: (approx date)
Aam ul-Fil (Year of the Elephant) Abraha invades Hejaz, and destruction of his army
Prophet Muhammad is born 29 August:
Birth of Ammar ibn Yasir Companion of prophet Muhammad
c. 573 CE Birth of abi Bakr
Pope John III retires Forced by the Lombards to retire from Rome, Pope takes up residence at the Catacombs along the Via Appia (approx date).
c. 574 CE Death of Pope John III Pope John III dies at Rome after a 13-year reign, until June of next year the Holy See becomes sede vacante.
c. 575 CE Birth of Heraclius Emperor of the Byzantine Empire (approximate date)
Pope Benedict I succeeds Pope John 2 June
c. 576 CE Birth of abu Ayub Ansari
Death of Prophet's mother Aminah In most traditions it is simply said that he died on the return trip from Syria to Mecca.
Waraka ibn Nawfal finds Muhammad wandering Ibn Ishaq says that in 576 Waraka found a lost five-year-old boy wandering around Upper Mecca. This was Muhammad; and it was Waraka who returned him to his grandfather Abdul Muttalib in the Kaaba.
Birth of Usman ibn Affan
c. 578 CE Death of Abdul Muttalib Approximate date of the death of prophet Muhammad's grandfather
Death of Hatim al-Tai Arab peot of Tai clan, he was buried in Towaren, Ha'il. The tomb is described in the Arabian Nights.
c. 579 CE Khosrau I dies, Hormizd IV succeeds Khosrau I dies after a 48-year reign, during which he has extended his realm from the River Oxus to the Red Sea. He is succeeded by his son Hormizd IV, who becomes king of the Persian Empire.
Pope Benedict I dies, Pelagius II succeeds
c. 582 CE Birth of Omar ibn al-Khattab Approximate date
Journey to Syria and meeting Buhaira Muhammad's journey to Syria with his uncle Abu Talib. They meet with Bahira, a Christian monk. Bahira notes true characteristics about the Prophet, which forces him to ask more and have him discover the "mark of prophets," a mark believed to be carried by all of the prophets of the Abrahimic faiths.
c. 595 CE Sacking of Jerusalem and destruction of Temple First Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by Babylonians
Prophet Muhammad weds Khadija Marriage after proposal from Khadija bint Khuwaylid
Birth of Ja’far ibn Abi Talib
c. 597 CE Birth of Zainab bint Muhammad First daughter of Prophet Muhammad with Khadija
Augustine The first Archbishop of Canterbury, took office.
c. 598 CE Birth of Qasim ibn Muhammad
7th Century CE
c. 601 CE Birth of Ruqayyah bint Muhammad
Birth of Ali ibn Talib Birth of Ali ibn Abi Talib in the city of Mecca. The cousin of Muhammad and his son in law.
Death of Qasim ibn Muhammad Buried in Janant ul Mualla
c. 602 CE Birth of Muawiyah ibn abi Suffyan Established the Umayyad dynasty of the caliphate, and was the second caliph from the Umayyad clan, the first being Uthman ibn Affan.
c. 603 CE Birth of Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad
Birth of Abu al-Aswad al-Du'ali A close companion of Ali ibn Abi Talib and an arab grammarian. He was the first to place consonant-pointing and vowel-pointing (markings) on Arabic letters to clearly identify them. He was the first to write on Arabic linguistics, and is said to be the first to write a book on Arabic grammar (nahw).
c. 605 CE Birth of Hafsa bint Umar The daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab and Zaynab bint Madhun and the wife of the prophet Muhammad
Reconstruction of Kabah Reconstruction of the Kaaba after its structure was damaged due to floods. Prophet Muhammad also took part, settling a quarrel between Meccan clans as to which clan should set the Black Stone cornerstone in place.
c. 609 CE Panthoen renamed Church of Santa Maria Rotonda Pagan pantheon in Rome consecrated as church of St. Maria Rotunda by Pope Boniface IV. As part of the dedication, Pope Boniface confirmed All Saints' Day.
Birth of Fatimah bint Muhammad 27 July
First Revelation of Quran 22 December: Revelation of Sura Iqra's (al-Alaq, one of the chapters of the Quran) first five verses, prophet Muhammad was visited by the archangel Gabriel, who revealed to him the beginnings of what would later become the Holy Quran.
c. 610 CE Khadija accepts Islam January: Ibn Hisham and Ibn Ishaq narrate hen Muhammad reported his first revelation from the Angel Gabriel (Jibril), Khadija was the first person to convert to Islam.
Declaration of prophethood by Muhammad pbuh Prophet Muhammad delared his prophethood at the age of 40 after receiving first revalation from archangel Gabriel brought from God to Muhammad in the cave Mount Hira.
Ali accepts Islam Ali ibn Abi Talib is considered the first Muslim convert. The early historian Ibn Ishaq and Tabari puts Ali Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law as the first male convert.
Birth of Safiyyah bint Huyayy One of the wives of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.
Death of Waraka ibn Nawfal
Zayd ibn Haritha accepts Islam One account in Tabari says that the first male convert was Zayd ibn Harithah, a freed slave who had become Muhammad's adopted son. It is known that Ali was indeed the first person to convert to Islam, however some dispute this arguing he was only 12 years old at the time he embraced Islam.
c. 612 CE Holy Sponge transfered to Constantinople Brought to Constantinople from Palestine it was one of the Instruments of the Passion of Jesus Christ. According to tradition it was dipped in vinegar and offered to Christ to drink during the Crucifixion
c. 613 CE Prophet Muhammad starts public preaching Prophet spreads the message of Islam and encourages a personal devotion to God. Arabic leaders from Mecca oppose any change in the traditional tribal and religious customs.
Birth of Aiesha bint Abī Bakr
c. 614 CE Conquest of Jerusalem The Persian Empire under general Shahrbaraz captures and sacks Jerusalem; the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is damaged by fire and the True Cross is captured.
Heavy persecution of Muslims begins Heavy persecution of Muslims begins following the public message of prophet Muhammad
c. 615 CE First Muslim Martyr/first Muslim to be killed: Sumayyah bint Khabbab Sumayyah bint Khabbab, a slave of a prominent Meccan leader Abu Jahl, is famous as the first martyr of Islam; killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith.
First Hijra towards Habsha (Axum) Several of Muhammad's followers begin to emigrate to the Aksumite Empire. They found a small colony there, under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian emperor Așhama ibn Abjar.
Pope Boniface IV dies 25 May:
Death of Abdullah ibn Muhammad Muhammad gave him the name of his father. Abd-Allah died in childhood.
c. 616 CE Boycott begins The Banu Hashim clan begins to boycott Muhammad, in order to put pressure on his Muslim followers and his Islamic preachings.
Second Migration to Abyssinia
Jewish control over Jerusalem The Jews of Jerusalem gain complete control over the city; much of Judea and Galilee becomes an autonomous Jewish province of the Persian Empire.
Death of John the Merciful Patriarch of Alexandria
c. 617 CE Battle of Buath The Arabic tribes win an indecisive battle against the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza, near the Medinan oasis.
c. 619 CE Boycott ends Banu Hashim clan boycott ends, during this time, Muhammad was only able to preach during the holy pilgrimage months in which all hostilities between Arabs was suspended.
Year of Sorrow Prophet's wife Khadija and uncle Abu Talib died
Birth of abd Allah ibn Abbas Cousin of prophet Muhammad
Death of Khadija April/May: Khadija died in "Ramadan of the year 10 after the Prophethood", and is said to have been about sixty-five years old at the time of her death. She was buried in Jannat al-Mu'alla cemetery, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Death of Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib Abū Ṭālib's died at more than 80 years of age, about 10 years after the start of Muhammad's mission. This year is known as the Year of Sorrow for Muhammad, because not only did his uncle Abu Talib die, but also his wife Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, within a month of Abu Talib.
Expedition to Taif Prophet Muhammad along his adopted son, Zayd ibn Harithah went to the city of Ta’if and invited the people there to Islam.
c. 620 CE Prophet Muhammad's night journey Isra and Mi'raj (ascension to heaven to meet God)
al-Fatiha translation into Persian Salman the Persian translates the first chapter of Quran into Persian Language, the date/year of the translation is not certain.
c. 621 CE Birth of Ardashir III
Birth of Suraqah al-Bariqi A companion of Muhammad, he is considered as one of the greatest poets. Much of his poetry revolves around the philosophy of life.
First Muslim Ambassador and envoy Mus`ab ibn `Umair was sent to Yathrib (now Medina) as a teacher, ambassador and envoy to teach the people the doctrines of Islam and give them guidance.
First Pledge of Aqabah
c. 622 CE Second Aqabah Pledge June:
Prophet Muhammad migrates to Medina 17 June: Prophet started the Hijra, emigration to Medina (then called Yathrib), on 17th June arriving in Medina on 2nd July.
Masjid e Quba is established Muhammad spent 14 days in this mosque during the Hijra praying qasr (a short prayer) while waiting for Ali.
Foundation of Masjid al Nabawi is laid 2 July: The mosque was built by Prophet Muhammad in 622 after his arrival in the city of Medina.
Baqi graveyard is established When Asa'ad Bin Zararah, one of Muhammad's companions died. Muhammad chose the spot to be a cemetery and Asa'ad was the first individual to be buried in al-Baqi among the Ansar.
First Muslim Muezzin/Azzan After Muhammad migrated to Medina he appointed Bilal ibn Ribah as the first Muslim Muezzin.
Constitution of Medina Charter of Medina was drafted by the Islamic prophet Muhammad shortly after his arrival at Medina, then known as Yathrib, marking the establishment of the first Islamic state.
al-Baqara revealed. Al-Baqara the first surah (one of the chapters of Quran) after the hijra is revealed.
Birth of Abdullah ibn Aamir
Birth of Al-Mukhtar Islamic revolutionary, an early Islamic revolutionary based in Kufa, Iraq who led an abortive rebellion against the Umayyad Caliphs in vengeance for the death of Husayn ibn 'Ali at the Battle of Karbala.
Birth of Uqba ibn Nafi Arab general
Death of Walid ibn al-Mughirah Chief of the Banu Makhzum clan of the Quraysh tribe.
c. 623 CE Birth of Marwan I March 28: Muslim Caliph
Expedition of Hamza ibn 'Abdul-Muttalib March: The first expedition, known as Al-Is Caravan Raid, (military operation) sent out by the Prophet Muhammad led by Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib (first military commander) seven to nine months after the Hijra.
c. 624 CE Birth of Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr January:
Orientation of qibla from Jerusalem to Mecca 11 February: According to traditional accounts from Muhammad's companions, the change happened very suddenly during the noon prayer in Medina, in a mosque now known as Masjid al-Qiblatayn (Mosque of the Two Qiblahs).
Battle of Badr 13 March: First battle between Muslim and Non Muslim forces at the site of Badr, considered beginning of Islamic Empire. The battle has been passed down in Islamic history as a decisive victory attributable to divine intervention, or by secular sources to the strategic genius of Muhammad. It is one of the few battles specifically mentioned in the Quran. expand
Death of Utbah ibn Rabi'ah 13 March: Utbah was killed in the battle of Badr, as narrated in the hadith collection of Sunan Abi Da'ud.
Death of Umayyah ibn Khalaf 13 March: In the battle, Umayyah was captured by his old friend Abdul Rahman ibn Awf. He was killed by a group of Muslims led by his former slave Bilal (who was a victim of his earlier torture), in spite of Abdul Rahman's protestations and his attempt to shield Umayyah with his own body.
Death of Ruqayyah March:
Death of Amr ibn Hishām 17 March:
al-Anfal revealed Surah al-Anfal (one of the chapters of the Quran) is revealed mentioning the battle of Badr.
Birth of Hasan ibn Ali 1 December:
Birth of Yazdegerd III
Death of Abū Lahab
c. 625 CE Battle of Hamra al-Assad (غزوة حمراء الأسد) 24 March:
Expedition of Qatan 15 June:
Birth of Husayn ibn Ali 10 October:
Death of Pope Boniface V 25 October:
Battle of Uhad 22 December: Second battle between Quraysh and Muslim Forces
Death of Abd-Allah ibn Jahsh 22 December: Abd-Allah ibn Jahsh was killed in the battle of Uhud by Akhnas ibn Shariq.
c. 626 CE Expedition of Badr al-Maw'id Muslims, who were then at Badr, stayed for 8 days waiting for their enemy.
Birth of Zaynab bint Ali 2 October: Granddaughter of Muhammad and member of Ahl al-Bayt
Death of Fatimah bint Asad Mother of Ali ibn Abu Talib, Aunt of Muhammad
c. 627 CE Battle of the Trench 31 March: Muhammad successfully withstands a siege for 27 days at Medina, by Meccan forces (10,000 men) under Abu Sufyan, whose allies, the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza, ultimately surrender to Muhammad.
Death of Zaynab bint Khuzayma Known as Umm al-Masakin, "Mother of the Poor", born 595) was the fifth wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. She died less than two years later, the only one of Muhammad's wives to die before him during the month of Rabi' al-thani, and was buried in Jannat ul-Baqi.
Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan August: The 2nd raid on the Banu Assad bin Qhuzayma tribe, a platoon of 30 Muslim fighters led by Ukasha ibn al-Mihsan was despatched to a place called Al-Ghamir inhabited by Bani Asad.
c. 628 CE Treaty of Hudaybiyyah is signed Muhammad, Islamic prophet, leads about 1,400 men on a pilgrimage to Mecca, where their passage is blocked. The Quraysh tribe and the Muslim community in Medina sign a 10-year truce.
Babai the Great died An early church father of the Church of the East, served as a monastic visitor and coadjutor with Mar Aba as unofficial heads of the Nestorian Church after Catholicos Gregory until his death.
Diplomatic correspondance of Muhammad Personalities, amongst others, included the Negus of Axum, Heraclius (emperor of the Byzantine Empire), the Muqawqis of Egypt, Khosrau, Sassanid King of Persia (Iran).
c. 629 CE Khaybar is taken by Muslim Forces May/June: Muslim forces take Khaybar Oasis including Fort Husn and Qila e Qamus.
First Pilgrimage to Mecca Pilgrimage of Muslims to Mecca per Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Heraclius conquers Jerusalem Byzantine Emperor Heraclius retakes Jerusalem, after the decisive defeat of the Sassanid Empire at the Battle of Nineveh (627). Heraclius personally returns the True Cross to the city.
Arab-Byzantine Wars (expand) Expedition to Tabouk, Battle of Mu'tah,
al-Khansā accepts Islam The best known female poet in Arabic literature. She was a contemporary of prophet Muhammad, and eventually converted to Islam.
Death of Ja’far ibn Abi Talib
Death of Kenana ibn al-Rabi A Jewish Arab tribal leader of seventh-century Arabia and an opponent of Muhammad; son of the poet al-Rabi ibn Abu al-Huqayq. Ibn al-Rabi' was killed during early Muslim clashes with the Banu Nadir.
c. 630 CE Battle of Hunayn January: Prophet Muhammad defeats the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin (12,000 men) in a valley, on one of the roads leading to Ta'if (Western Arabia).
Siege of Ta'if 5 February: Muhammad begins to besiege Ta'if and brings battering rams and catapults to suppress the fortress city, but is unable to penetrate it.
Conquest of Mecca 11 December: The conquest of Mecca is the historical event when Mecca capitulated and was conquered by Muslims led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad on 20 Ramadan, 8 Hj.
c. 631 CE Tulayha rebels and claims prophethood He rebelled against Muhammad in 631 when he claimed to be a prophet and the recipient of divine revelation. He was the third person to claim prophethood among the Arabs.
Birth of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr The son of Abu Bakr and a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. His mother was Asma bint Umays. He became the adopted son of Ali, the first Imam of Shiite Muslims, and became one of his generals.
Death of Rayhana bint Zayd She was a Jewish woman from the Banu Nadir tribe, who is revered by Muslims as one of the Ummahaatu'l-Mu'mineen, or Mothers of the Faithful, the Wives of Muhammad. She died young, 11 years after Muhammad's hajj and was buried in Jannat al-Baqi cemetery.
c. 632 CE Farewell Pilgrimage March: Friday, 9 Zulhijja, 10 AH, The Last Sermon (Khutba-i Hujat ul-Wida'a) is delivered by Muhammad, Islamic prophet, in the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat, to the Muslims who has accompanied him for the Hajj (pilgrimage).
al-Ma'ida revealed Surah al-Ma'ida (one of the chapters of holy Quran) is revealed, the last sura.
Death of Prophet Muhammad 8 June: Prophet Muhammad dies at Medina at the age of 63, after an illness and fever. According to Shias, he was succeeded by Ali ibn Abi Talib; according to Sunnis, he was succeeded by Abu Bakr.
abi Bakr becomes first caliph Abdullah ibn Abi Qahafa, a senior companion (Sahabi) and the father-in-law of Muhammad, became the first Muslim Caliph.
Ridda Wars begin (expand) Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr against rebel Arabian tribes during 632 and 633 AD, just after Muhammad died.
San'a
Hadhramaut
Najran
Mahra
Daba
Hajr
Yamamah
Butah
Naqrah
Ghamrah
Buzakha: Tulayha al-Asaddi
Daumat ul Jandal
Zhu Qissa
Aswad Ansi claims prophethood A supposed prophet Aswad Ansi arose and invaded South Arabia; he was killed on 30 May 632 CE (6 Rabi' al-Awwal, 11 Hijri) by Governor Fērōz of Yemen, a Persian Muslim.
Battle of Buzakha (Ridda Wars) September: The Battle of Buzakha took place between Khalid ibn al-Walid and Tulieha
Death of Fatimah 28 August:
Death of Ibrahim ibn Muhammad November:
Battle of Yamama/Aqraba (Ridda Wars) December: Fought in December 632 as part as the Ridda Wars against a rebellion within the Rashidun Caliphate in the region of Al-Yamama (in present-day Saudi Arabia) between the forces of Abu Bakr and Musaylimah, a self-proclaimed prophet. The Muslim forces of Abu Bakr defeat the Apostate rebels (40,000 men) under Musaylimah, on the plain of Aqraba.
c. 633 CE Ridda Wars are concluded The Campaign of the Apostasy was fought and completed during the 11th year of the Hijra. The year 12 Hijri dawned, on March 18, 633, with Arabia united under the central authority of the Caliph at Medina. This campaign was Abu Bakr's greatest political and military triumph, and was a complete success.
Battle of Chains April: First battle of the Rashidun Caliphate in which the Muslim army sought to extend its frontiers in to Mesopotamia.
Battle of River April: Also known as battle of Mazar took place in Mesopotamia (Iraq) between the forces of the Rashidun Caliphate and the Sasanian Empire. Muslims, under Khalid ibn al-Walid's command, defeated the numerically superior Persian army.
Battle of Walaja May: Battle was fought in Mesopotamia (Iraq) in May 633 between the Rashidun Caliphate army under Khalid ibn al-Walid and Al-Muthanna ibn Haritha against the Sassanid Empire and its Arab allies. In this battle the Sassanid army is said to have been at least three times the size of the Muslim army.
Battle of Ullais May: After defeat at the Battle of Walaja, Christian Arab survivors of the battle fled from the battlefield, their flight ended at Ullais.
Battle of Mazar May: Also known as battle of Mazar took place in Mesopotamia (Iraq) between the forces of the Rashidun Caliphate and the Sasanian Empire. Muslims, under Khalid ibn al-Walid's command, defeated the numerically superior Persian army.
Fourth Council of Toledo 5 December: King Sisenand orders a meeting in the church of St. Leocadia; the bishops accept a decree that all Visigoths must take an oath to preserve the stability of the Gothic nation.
c. 634 CE Battle of Ajnadayn 30 July: Byzantine forces (9,000 men) under Theodore are defeated by the Rashidun Caliphate near Beit Shemesh.
abu Bakr died 23 August 634 CE
ibn Khattab becomes seconds caliph Leading companion and adviser to Muhammad, and became the second Muslim caliph after abi Bakr's death and ruled for 10 years. He succeeded Abu Bakr on 23 August 634 CE as the second caliph, and played a significant role in Islam.
Battle of the Bridge (معركة الجسر) November: Persian forces (10,000 men) under Bahman Jadhuyih defeat the Muslim Arabs at the Euphrates (near Kufa). The sight of elephants panics the Muslims, and many are killed. Bahman does not pursue the fleeing Arab army.
c. 635 CE Battle of Fahl Fought between the Rashidun army under Khalid ibn al-Walid Saifullah and the Roman Empire under Theodore the Sacellarius (Saqalar), in Fahl and the result was a clear victory for Muslims.
Conquest of Gaza Muslim Arabs conquer Gaza under 'Amr ibn al-'As. It becomes the first city in Palestine developed into a centre of Islamic law.
c. 636 CE Battle of Yarmouk The conquest of Jerusalem by the armies of the Rashidun Caliphate (Islamic Empire) under Caliph Umar Ibn el-Khatab. Jews are permitted to return to the city after 568 years of Roman and Byzantine rule.
Battle of al-Qādisiyyah 16-19 November: The Muslim Arab army defeats the Persian forces under Rostam Farrokhzād, at Al-Qādisiyyah (Southern Mesopotamia).
Death of Sa'd ibn Ubadah
c. 637 CE Battle of Hazir/Conquest of Syria Ma'arakah al-Haadhir took place between the Byzantine army and the Rashidun army's elite cavalry, the Mobile guard under the command of Khalid ibn al-Walid.
Umar reforms the military as state department Umar was the first Muslim ruler to organize the army as a state department. This reform was introduced in 637. A beginning was made with the Quraish and the Ansar and the system was gradually extended to the whole of Arabia and to Muslims of conquered lands.
c. 638 CE Capture of Jerusalem by Muslim forces The conquest of Jerusalem by the armies of the Rashidun Caliphate (Islamic Empire) under Caliph Umar Ibn el-Khatab. Jews are permitted to return to the city after 568 years of Roman and Byzantine rule.
c. 639 CE Establishment of Islamic/Hijri Calendar 17 years after the Hijra, caliph Umar abolished the practice of named years and established a new calendar era proposed by Ali marking the Hijrah as start.
c. 641 CE Mosque of Amr ibn al-As Originally built as the center of the newly founded capital of Egypt, Fustat. The original structure was the first mosque ever built in Egypt and whole Africa. The location for the mosque was the site of the tent of the commander of the Muslim army, general Amr ibn al-As.
c. 642 CE Conquest of Egypt by Muslim Forces
c. 644 CE ibn Khattab is assassinated Umar was assassinated by a Persian slave named Piruz Nahavandi (abu Lulu) by later accounts and was succeeded by Uthman, from the Banu Umayya clan.
ibn Affan becomes caliph
c. 650 CE Compilation of Quran as a book The process of compilation and canonization ended under the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan.
c. 656 CE Assassination of Uthman Assassinated by Egyptian rebels.
Ali takes office of the caliph Following the assassination of ibn Affan
Kufa replaces Medina as the capital of state In order to manage the Military frontiers more efficiently, Ali shifted the capital from Medina to Kufa.
c. 657 CE Seat of caliphate is moved to Kufa Caliph Ali moved the capital of Islam to Kufa, Iraq on January 1, and forever cemented the political and cultural center outside Arabia forever.
Battle of Siffin The First Fitna, or first Muslim civil war, with the main engagement taking place from July 26 to July 28. It was fought between Ali who ruled as the Fourth Caliph, and Muawiyah I, on the banks of the Euphrates river, in what is now Raqqa, Syria.
c. 661 CE Assassination of Ali ibn abi Talib The assassination of the Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib occured on February 28, 661 CE.
Sana'a Manuscript One of the oldest Quranic manuscripts in existence, according to radiocarbon dating it belongs to 661-671 CE.
Establishment of Umayyad Caliphate The beginning of the Umayyad Caliphate rule from Damascus following the assassination of the Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, Mu'awiya becomes the first Umayyad Khalifa.
c. 665 CE Death of Hafsah bint Umar October/November: She is buried in Jannat-Ul-Baqi.
c. 670 CE Establishment of Kairouan The city, first Islamic city in North Africa, was founded by the Umayyads around 670. In the period of Caliph Mu'awiya (reigned 661–680 CE), it became an important centre for Sunni Islamic scholarship and Quranic learning.
Conquest of Algeria and Morocco Uqba ibn Nafi, an Arab general, conquers western Algeria and Morocco.
Death of Hasan ibn Ali 1 April:
c. 680 CE Yazid ibn Mu'awiya succeeds Mu'awiya Yazid ibn Mu'awiya, son of Mu'awiya, succeeds his father as caliph.
Battle of Karbala 10 October: Husayn, son of Ali, is killed in the Battle of Karbala. This event cements the schism between Shi'i and Sunni Muslims. Husayn's martyrdom is commemorated by Shi'i Muslims to this day.
Death of Husayn ibn Ali 10 October:
c. 683 CE Siege of Medina The Umayyads sack Medina to subdue uprisings.
Siege of Mecca September–November: One of the early battles of the Second Islamic Civil War. The city of Mecca served as a sanctuary for Abdallah ibn al-Zubayr, who was among the most prominent challengers to the dynastic succession to the Caliphate by the Umayyad Yazid I.
c. 684 CE Mu'awiya II assumes caliphate Mu'awiya II becomes caliph after the death of his father, Yazid but cedes the title to Marwan ibn al-Hakam after four months rule.
c. 685 CE ibn Marwan takes the office of Caliph The caliph abd al-Malik ibn Marwan of the Umayyad dynasty.
c. 687 CE Construction of Dome of Rock The caliph abd al-Malik ibn Marwan of the Umayyad dynasty establishes the Muslim shrine Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, a site which according to Muslim tradition was the place where Muhammad ascended to heaven.
c. 691 CE Construction of Dome of Rock is completed
c. 692 CE Siege of Mecca October: Occurred after the Islamic Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan sent his General Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf with a large army to Mecca where Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr ruled, to put an end to the rival Caliphate.
Death of Abdullah ibn Zubayr November: Defeated and killed in Mecca in 692 CE after a six-month siege by general Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf.
c. 697 CE Conquest of Carthage by Muslims
8th Century CE
c. 700 CE Rebuilding of al Aqsa by Abdul Malik Umayid caliph Abdul Malik started reconstruction of original al Aqsa, a small prayer hall.
c. 705 CE Completion/expansion of al Aqsa by Abdul Malik
Walid ibn al-Malik assumes caliphate Walid ibn Abd al Malik becomes Khalifa upon his father's death.
c. 706 CE Umar ibn abd ul-Aziz assumes governership
c. 707 CE Prophet's Mosque is rebuilt On the orders of al-Walid and supervision of Umer II the reconstruction continued till 712 CE, mosque was expanded and a prayer niche (mihrab) emphasizing the wall facing Mecca (qibla), four minarets at the corners of the building for the call to prayer, and marble paneling and mosaics for the walls.
Bimaristan (بیمارستان) Establishment of first organized hispital in Damascus by Umayyad Caliph al-Walid ibn abd al-Malik
c. 711 CE Muslim conquest of Hispania (Andalus)
c. 721 CE Birth of Jabir ibn Hayyan Known by the Latinization Geber, was a Muslim polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.
c. 744 CE Salih bin Tarif The second king of the Berghouata Berber kingdom, and proclaimed himself a prophet of a new religion. He appeared during the caliphate of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.
c. 749 CE Galilee (Seventh) Earthquake Earthquake is recorded in the Jordan Rift Valley. The cities of Tiberias, Beit She'an, Hippos and Pella were largely destroyed while many other cities throughout the Jordan Rift Valley region were heavily damaged.
c. 750 CE Founding of Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate.
al-Saffah assumes caliphate 25 January:
c. 751 CE Battle of Talas River May-September: military engagement between the Arab Abbasid Caliphate along with their ally the Tibetan Empire against the Chinese Tang dynasty, governed at the time by Emperor Xuanzong for control over the Syr Darya region of central Asia.
c. 754 CE Caliph as-Saffah died 10 June: Four years after taking the title of caliph, as-Saffah died of small pox and Abu Ja'far al-Mansur succeeded him.
c. 760 CE Karaites split from rabbinic Judaism The Karaites reject the authority of the oral law, and split off from rabbinic Judaism.
Massacre of Arabs and Persians in China Large scale massacre of wealthy Arab and Persian merchants occurred in China during the Yangzhou massacre, at the hands of Chinese rebels led by Tian Shengong.
c. 762 CE Founding of Baghdad Baghdad was founded on the west bank of the Tigris by al-Mansur, the second caliph of the Abbasid Empire, in 762 CE. It was to be the administrative capital of the new empire.
c. 772 CE Zīj al‐Sindhind al‐kabīr Great astronomical tables of the Sindhind"; from Sanskrit siddhānta, "system" or "treatise is an Indian work of zij (astronomical handbook with tables used to calculate celestial positions) brought in the early 770s to the court of Caliph al-Mansur in Baghdad.
c. 780 CE Birth of Ibn Hanbal
Birth of Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi
c. 786 CE Islamic Golden Age This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786 to 809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom
c. 795 CE Samarkand Kufic Quran Preserved at Tashkent, is a Kufic manuscript, in Uzbek tradition identified as one of Uthman's manuscripts, but dated to the 8th or 9th century.
9th Century CE
c. 805 CE Establishment of earliest Islamic hospital The earliest Islamic hospital was built in 805 in Baghdad by order of Harun Al-Rashid.
c. 810 CE Bayt al-Hikma is established House of Wisdom set up in Baghdad, where Greek and Indian mathematical and astronomy works were translated into Arabic.
c. 815 CE Death of Jabir ibn Hayyan After being placed under house arrest in Kufa, where he remained until his death.
c. 820 CE On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals Al-Khwārizmī completes his book on Indian numberals, principally responsible for spreading the Hindu–Arabic numeral system throughout the Middle East and Europe.
The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing Is a mathematical book written by al-Khwarizmi, with the encouragement of Caliph al-Ma'mun as a popular work on calculation and is replete with examples and applications to a wide range of problems in trade, surveying and legal inheritance.
c. 833 CE Kitāb Ṣūrat al-Arḍ al-Khwarizmi completes his third major work, also known as his Geography.
c. 850 CE Kitab fi Jawani Work of al-Farghani a summary of Ptolemic cosmography, correcting Ptolemy based on findings of earlier Arab astronomers.
Death of al-Khwarizmi
c. 855 CE Death of Imam Ibn Hanbal Ahmad Ibn Hanbal died on Friday, 12 Rabi-ul-I, 241 Hj/ 2 August, 855 at the age of 74-75 in Baghdad, Iraq. Historians relate that his funeral was attended by 800,000 men and 60,000 women.
Greek translation of Quran The second known translation was into Greek and was used by Nicetas Byzantius, a scholar from Constantinople, in his 'Refutation of Quran' written between 855 and 870. However, we know nothing about who and for what purpose had made this translation. It is however very probable that it was a complete translation.
c. 859 CE University of Al Quaraouiyine Founded by Fatima al-Fihri, located in Fez, Morocco, it is the oldest existing, continually operating and the first degree-awarding educational institution in the world.
c. 868 CE Palestine is Annexed to Egypt
c. 883 CE Tafsir al-Tabri is compiled The oldest surviving major tafsir collection was completed.
c. 884 CE First complete translation of Quran in to Sindhi Although not existing today, a Sindhi translation was completed in 884 in Alwar (present-day Sindh, Pakistan), which had been commissioned by Abdullah bin Umar bin Abdul Aziz, it was the first complete translation of the Quran into a foreign language.
c. 890 CE Construction of Alhambra begins First construction
10th Century CE
c. 905 CE Abbasid reconquest of the Palestine region
c. 909 CE Establishment of Fatimid Caliphate At its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz.
c. 912 CE Abd ul-Rehman III becomes Caliph of Spain Ushering in the height of tolerance. Muslims granted Jews and Christians exemptions from military service, the right to their own courts of law, and a guarantee of safety of their property. Jewish poets, scholars, scientists, statesmen and philosophers flourished in and were an integral part of the extensive Arab civilization.
c. 922 CE Execution of Hallaj
c. 928 CE Consecration of Al-Hakim Mosque Named after Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (985–1021), the sixth Fatimid caliph and 16th Ismaili Imam.
c. 930 CE Sack of Mecca Qarmatians sack the holy city and take the black stone away
c. 936 CE Birth of Abu al-Qasim Known to the West as Albucasis, was an Arab Muslim physician and surgeon who lived in Al-Andalus. He is considered the greatest medieval surgeon to have appeared from the Islamic World, and has been described as the father of surgery. His greatest contribution to medicine is the Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume encyclopedia of medical practices.
Founding of Medina al-Zahra It was an Arab Muslim medieval town and the de facto capital of al-Andalus, or Muslim Spain, as the heart of the administration and government was within its walls.
c. 940 CE Birth of Ferdowsi Abu ʾl-Qasim Ferdowsi Tusi, a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran.
c. 950 CE Umayyad Dynasty in Hispania Abd ul-Rehman III becomes caliph in Spain marking the beginning of “Golden Age” in Andalus (Umayyad dynasty).
c. 951 CE Hajr e Aswad returned to Mecca
c. 952 CE Kitab al-Fusul fi al-Hisab al-Hindi Arab mathematician, al-Uqlidisi writes Kitab al-Fusul fi al-Hisab al-Hindi (The Arithemetics of Al-Uqlidisi), notable for its treatment of decimal fractions, and that it showed how to carry out calculations without deletions..
c. 964 CE Nebulous Spot Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, writing in his Book of Fixed Stars, described a "nebulous spot" in the Andromeda constellation, the first definitive reference to what we now know is the Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest spiral galaxy to our galaxy.
c. 965 CE Translation of al-Tabri in to Persian The Samanid king, Mansur I (961–976), ordered a group of scholars from Khorasan to translate the Tafsir al-Tabari, originally in Arabic, into Persian.
c. 971 CE Birth of Mahmud of Ghazni 2 November:
c. 972 CE Founding of al Azhar Al-Azhar University Founded, Cairo.
c. 977 CE Establishment of Ghaznavid Empire
c. 980 CE Birth of Ibn-i Sina Avicenna
al-Biruni calculats the earth's radius al-Biruni estimated the radius of the earth as 6339.6 km (modern value is c. 6,371 km), the best estimate at that time.
c. 990 CE Birth of Samuel ibn Naghrela Diplomat and poet, as well as vizier to King Habus of Granada and author of a Biblical Hebrew dictionary.
Death of Al-Uqlidisi Arab mathematician, who was active in Damascus and Baghdad. He wrote the earliest surviving book on the positional use of the Arabic numerals, Kitab al-Fusul fi al-Hisab al-Hindi (The Arithemetics of Al-Uqlidisi) around 952.
c. 995 CE Birth of Shaykh Tusi A prominent Persian scholar of the Twelver school of Shia Islam.
Birth of Abu'l-Fadl Bayhaqi
c. 996 CE Death of Abu Talib al-Makki A hadith scholar, Shafi'i jurist and a Sufi Mystic, set down the foundation of Sufi practices and author of the book Qut al-qulub fi mu'amalat al-mahbub wa wasf tariq al-murid ila maqam al-tawhid (The nourishment of hearts in dealing with the Beloved and the description of the seeker's way to the station of declaring oneness).
Death of Pope John XV 1 April:
Death of Abu Mansur Nizar al-Aziz Billah 13 October: The fifth Caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate (975–996).
c. 998 CE Mahmud of Ghazni takes over the empire Mahmud Gaznavid captures Khorasan & Afghanistan gains control of Khorasan and Afghanistan. Establishes Ghazni as his capital and transforms it into one the leading cultural centers in Asia.

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